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   2016| January-March  | Volume 41 | Issue 1  
    Online since December 8, 2015

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Millennium development goals (MDGS) to sustainable development goals (SDGS): Addressing unfinished agenda and strengthening sustainable development and partnership
Sanjiv Kumar, Neeta Kumar, Saxena Vivekadhish
January-March 2016, 41(1):1-4
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.170955  PMID:26917865
  14,807 1,116 66
Menstrual hygiene practices in context of schooling: A community study among rural adolescent girls in Varanasi
Sangeeta Kansal, Sweta Singh, Alok Kumar
January-March 2016, 41(1):39-44
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.170964  PMID:26917872
Introduction: Up until now, poor menstrual hygiene in developing countries has been an insufficiently acknowledged problem. The lack of attention to this issue is striking as we cannot achieve several Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), that is, 2, 3 4,5, and5B. This study aimed to assess the level of awareness about menarche and hygienic practices during menstruation in context of schooling . Materials and Methods: Community-based cross-sectional study using a mix method approach (qualitative and quantitative). It was conducted among 650 adolescent girls in the field practice area of Rural Health and Training Centre, Chiraigaon block of district Varanasi between January and June2011. Pretested, semistructured interview schedule was used. Data were analyzed statistically by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Results: Out of the total 650 respondents, 590 (90.78%) had attained menarche at the time of interview and only one-third of the respondents (29.4%) were aware of menstruation before menarche and sisters (55%) played the key role in providing information to them. Only 31% respondents were using sanitary pads during menstruation. Self-reported reproductive tract infection (RTI) was observed more in respondents not maintaining hygienic practices (6.6%) as compared to those maintaining hygiene (2.6%). Conclusion and Recommendations: From the Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) as well as quantitative survey it was observed that the awareness about menarche before its onset was still poor in rural areas. Significant association (P < 0.05) was observed between respondent education and their awareness about menarche before its onset. Therefore, it is recommended that teachers can play an influential role in informing them about changes during adolescence, especially about menarche and other issues related to menstruation. As per the present study, sisters and mothers were the major source of information. Therefore, there is a need for the provision of comprehensive family life education for the parents also.
  11,374 683 9
Utilization of services under Janani Shishu Suraksha Karyakram for institutional deliveries in the public sector facilities, Sirmaur District, Himachal Pradesh, India
Uvi Tyagi, Kamaraj Pattabi, Prabhdeep Kaur
January-March 2016, 41(1):65-68
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.170992  PMID:26917877
Background: Janani Shishu Suraksha Karyakram (JSSK) was initiated in 2011 to reduce the out of pocket expenditure for pregnant women. We estimated the proportion of mothers who received JSSK benefits and out of pocket expenditure (OOP) if any in Sirmaur, Himachal Pradesh. Materials and Methods: We did cross sectional survey in public sector facilities among 156 consecutive mothers using structured questionnaire. We computed the proportion of mother who received the benefits and the median OOP expenditure. Results: Among 156 mothers surveyed, 93 (60%) received the full benefits during hospital stay and 29 (19%) received full transport benefits. Free diagnostics and drugs were given to 149 (96%) and 134 (86%) respectively. Overall, 63 (40%) had median OOP Rs 210 during hospitalization and 127 (81%) had median OOP of Rs 420 during transport. Conclusion: JSSK benefitted the mothers utilizing the public sector facilities however drugs, consumables and transport contributed to the OOP expenditure.
  5,413 363 4
Work-related neck pain among desk job workers of tertiary care hospital in New Delhi, India: Burden and determinants
Surendra Babu Darivemula, Kiran Goswami, Sanjeev Kumar Gupta, Harshal Salve, Upinder Singh, Anil Kumar Goswami
January-March 2016, 41(1):50-54
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.170967  PMID:26917874
Background: Work-related Neck Pain (WRNP) is a leading cause of disability and absenteeism. There is dearth of information about burden and determinants of WRNP in health facility setting in India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out at tertiary care hospital in New Delhi. All Group C desk job workers involved in the administrative work were included in the study. Participants were screened for WRNP by using pretested semi-structured questionnaire. Detailed information on probable risk factors was collected among patients with WRNP. Neck examination by trained investigator was done. Work place assessment was done by using observation check-list using the recommendations of the ISO Standard (Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display terminals). Crude and adjusted odds ratio was calculated with 95% confidence interval to understand the determinants of WRNP. Results: In total, 441 participants were included in the study. Of them, 58% were males. Majority of participants aged between31-50 years. One-year prevalence of neck pain and WRNP was reported as 43.3%, (95% CI 38.7%-47.9%) and 28.3%, (95% CI 24.3%-32.7%) respectively. On multivariate analysis, female gender (OR-2.0 95% CI) and poor perception of breaks during working hours (OR-2.4 95% CI), along with work place related factors such as posture (OR-5.4 95% CI) and height of the screen (<10 cms) (OR-2.6) were identified as independent determinants of WRNP. Conclusion: High one-year prevalence of WRNP was reported among desk job workers. Burden of WRNP was reported more among females as compared to males. Most common factor identified was Computer use for more than 4-6 hours was most important predictor of WRNP followed by work related factors such as height of screen and posture are associated with WRNP.
  5,180 438 2
An adolescent with bestiality behaviour: Psychological evaluation and community health concerns
Sujata Satapathy, Rajanikanta Swain, Vidhi Pandey, Chittaranjan Behera
January-March 2016, 41(1):23-26
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.170961  PMID:26917869
Bestiality is a serious but less commonly reported form of animal cruelty occurring in a society. It is a punishable sexual offence in India. Bestiality has received little attention in recent psychiatric literature, and even though case reports have been published, an elaborate psychological assessment is often missing. This case report of 18 year old male presented here highlighted the importance of psychological assessment to emphasize on its implications for the further risk assessment of the person, family psycho-education and non-pharmacological intervention for bestialists. The overall assessment suggested of absence of any brain dysfunction and active psychopathology, average intelligence (IQ) and intact cognitive functioning. The findings portrayed physical and sexual inadequacies, emotional and sexual immaturity, difficulty in emotional attachment, internalized hostility, voyeuristic tendencies and infantile social behaviour, excitement seeker, inability to delay gratification of impulses, lacks empathy, poor self-discipline, less conscientiousness and less sensitive to criticism. The report also emphasized the role of child sexual abuse on sexual behavior later life. The importance of including the topic within the community health/sexual and reproductive health education programmes was highlighted.
  5,027 258 3
Community medicine in India - Which way forward?
Anand Krishnan
January-March 2016, 41(1):5-10
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.170956  PMID:26917866
Today, the Community Medicine professionals in India feel both "confused" and "threatened" by the mushrooming of schools of public health and departments of family medicine. The phenomenon of identity crisis and low-self esteem is not a recent one, nor is it restricted to India. The disciplines of community medicine and public health have evolved differently and despite some overlaps have differences especially in the need for clinical training. The core of the issue is that while the community medicine fraternity is keen to retain its clinical tag, what differentiates it from clinicians is the use of public health approach. I believe the strength of community medicine is that it bridges the gap between traditional fields of public health and clinical medicine and brings community perspective into health. The perceived threat from non-medical persons led public health is largely a result of us undervaluing our strength and our inability to foster partnership on equal footing with non-clinicians. While departments of community medicine have a fully functional rural or urban field practice area used for training at primary level care, these can serve as an excellent platform for training in secondary level care required for family medicine. National needs dictate that all three disciplines are required for improvement of population health, whether these are housed together or separately can be left to individual institutions to decide as long as they enable collaborations between them. We need to strengthen community medicine and market it appropriately to ministries of health.
  4,489 551 1
Uterine rupture: A seven year review at a tertiary care hospital in New Delhi, India
Maruti Sinha, Ridhima Gupta, Pushpender Gupta, Rekha Rani, Ramanjeet Kaur, Rahil Singh
January-March 2016, 41(1):45-49
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.170966  PMID:26917873
Objective: To identify the obstetric risk factors, incidence, and causes of uterine rupture, management modalities, and the associated maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality in one of the largest tertiary level women care hospital in Delhi. Materials and Methods: A 7-year retrospective analysis of 47 cases of uterine rupture was done. The charts of these patients were analyzed and the data regarding demographic characteristics, clinical presentation, risk factors, management, operative findings, maternal and fetal outcomes, and postoperative complications was studied. Results: The incidence of rupture was one in 1,633 deliveries (0.061%). The vast majority of patients had prior low transverse cesarean section (84.8%). The clinical presentation of the patients with rupture of the unscarred uterus was more dramatic with extensive tears compared to rupture with scarred uterus. The estimated blood loss ranged from 1,200 to 1,500 cc. Hemoperitoneum was identified in 95.7% of the patient and 83% of the patient underwent repair of rent with or without simultaneous tubal ligation. Subtotal hysterectomy was performed in five cases. There were no maternal deaths in our series. However, there were 32 cases of intrauterine fetal demise and five cases of stillbirths. Conclusions: Uterine rupture is a major contributor to maternal morbidity and neonatal mortality. Four major easily identifiable risk factors including history of prior cesarean section, grand multiparity, obstructed labor, and fetal malpresentations constitute 90% of cases of uterine rupture. Identification of these high risk women, prompt diagnosis, immediate transfer, and optimal management needs to be overemphasized to avoid adverse fetomaternal complications.
  4,527 227 6
Road transport in Urban India: Its implications on health
Hariom Kumar Solanki, Farhad Ahamed, Sanjeev Kumar Gupta, Baridalyne Nongkynrih
January-March 2016, 41(1):16-22
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.170959  PMID:26917868
  4,392 280 6
Family-centered care for sick newborns: A thumbnail view
Arti Maria, Rajib Dasgupta
January-March 2016, 41(1):11-15
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.170957  PMID:26917867
Family-centered care (FCC) for sick newborns is emerging as a paradigmatic shift in the practice of facility-based newborn care. It seeks to transforming a provider-centered model into a client-centered one and thus build a new therapeutic alliance. FCC is the cornerstone of continuum of care, imparting caregiving competencies to parents/caregivers both within institutions as well as after the discharge. This has potential gains for the newborn, family members, and facility-level staff. The initial model piloted in tertiary-care settings is now undergoing translation at five sites across the country; the outcomes are keenly awaited.
  3,975 344 6
Behavioral and psychosocial risk factors associated with first and recurrent cystitis in Indian women: A case-control study
Bharti Mishra, Richa Srivastava, Jyotsna Agarwal, Sugandha Srivastava, Amita Pandey
January-March 2016, 41(1):27-33
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.170962  PMID:26917870
Background: The risk factors for urinary tract infections (UTIs) from developed countries are not applicable to women from developing world. Objective: To analyze the behavioral practices and psychosocial aspects pertinent to women in our region and assess their association with acute first time or recurrent UTI. Materials and Methods: Sexually active premenopausal women with their first (145) and recurrent (77) cystitis with Escherichia coli as cases and women with no prior history of UTI as healthy controls (257) were enrolled at a tertiary care hospital in India, between June 2011 and February 2013. Questionnaire-based data was collected from each participant through a structured face-to-face interview. Results: Using univariate and multivariate regression models, independent risk factors for the first episode of cystitis when compared with healthy controls were (presented in odds ratios [ORs] with its 95% confidence interval [CI]): Anal sex (OR = 3.68, 95% CI = 1.59-8.52), time interval between last sexual intercourse and current episode of UTI was <5 days (OR = 2.27, 95% CI = 1.22-4.23), use of cloth during menstrual cycle (OR = 2.36, 95% CI = 1.31-4.26), >250 ml of tea consumption per day (OR = 4.73, 95% CI = 2.67-8.38), presence of vaginal infection (OR = 3.23, 95% CI = 1.85-5.62) and wiping back to front (OR = 2.52, 95% CI = 1.45-4.38). Along with the latter three, history of UTI in a first-degree female relative (OR = 10.88, 95% CI = 2.41-49.07), constipation (OR = 4.85, 95% CI = 1.97-11.92) and stress incontinence (OR = 2.45, 95% CI = 1.18-5.06) were additional independent risk factors for recurrent cystitis in comparison to healthy controls. Conclusion: Most of the risk factors for initial infection are potentially modifiable but sufficient to also pose risk for recurrence. Many of the findings reflect the cultural and ethnic practices in our country.
  2,787 290 3
Reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health in the community: Task-sharing between male and female health workers in an Indian rural context
Sara J Elazan, Ariel E Higgins-Steele, Jean Christophe Fotso, Mila H Rosenthal, Dharitri Rout
January-March 2016, 41(1):34-38
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.170963  PMID:26917871
Background: Male community health workers (CHWs) have rarely been studied as an addition to the female community health workforce to improve access and care for reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health (RMNCH). Objective: To examine how male health activists (MHAs) coordinated RMNCH responsibilities with existing female health workers in an Indian context. Materials and Methods: Interviews from male and female CHWs were coded around community-based engagement, outreach services, and links to facility-based care. Results: Community-based engagement: MHAs completed tasks both dependent and independent of their gender, such as informing couples on safe RMNCH care in the antenatal and postnatal periods. MHAs motivated males on appropriate family planning methods, demonstrating clear gendered responsibility. Outreach services: MHAs were most valuable traveling to remote areas to inform about and bring mothers and children to community health events, with this division of labor appreciated by female health workers. Link to facility-based services: MHAs were recognized as a welcome addition accompanying women to health facilities for delivery, particularly in nighttime. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the importance of gendered CHW roles and male-female task-sharing to improve access to community health events, outreach services, and facility-based RMNCH care.
  2,505 328 5
Nonadherence to antiretroviral therapy among people living with HIV/AIDS attending two tertiary care hospitals in district of northern India
Mukesh Shukla, Monika Agarwal, Jai Vir Singh, Anil Kumar Tripathi, Anand Kumar Srivastava, Vijay Kumar Singh
January-March 2016, 41(1):55-61
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.170970  PMID:26917875
Introduction: Adherence to antiretroviral therapy is a principal predictor for the success of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment. It remains as a challenge to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) treatment and care with the widespread of the associated risks. Therefore, study aims to assess nonadherence level and factors associated with nonadherence to ART among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA). Materials and Methods: A hospital-based, cross-sectional study was conducted at two tertiary care hospital of Lucknow. A total of 322 adult HIV-positive patients registered in the ART center were included. Systematic random sampling was used to recruit patients. Nonadherence was assessed on the basis of pill count method. Results: A total of 10.9% of patients were found to be nonadherent to ART. Principal causes cited were being busy with other work (40.0%), felt sick or ill (28.5%), not having money (14.2%), and being away from home (11.4). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that nonadherence was significantly associated with nonbeneficial perceptions towards ART (odds ratio (OR) 18.5; 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.2-106.6; P = 0.001), being counseled for adherence for more than 3 months (OR 13.9; 95% CI 1.6-118.9; P = 0.01), presence of depression (OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.0-6.7; P = 0.04), and those who were not satisfied with healthcare facilities (OR 5.63; 95% CI 1.88-16.84; P = 0.00). Conclusion: Although adherence to ART varies between individuals and over time, the factors that affect nonadherence can be addressed with proper periodic counseling and motivation of patients and their family members. Adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) could delay the progression of this lethal disease and minimize the risk of developing drug resistance.
  2,339 332 4
Socio-cultural and knowledge-based barriers to tuberculosis diagnosis for women in Bhopal, India
Evonne McArthur, Surya Bali, Azim A Khan
January-March 2016, 41(1):62-64
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.170990  PMID:26917876
Background: In India, only one woman is diagnosed with tuberculosis (TB) for every 2.4 men. Previous studies have indicated gender disparities in care-seeking behavior and TB diagnosis; however, little is known about the specific barriers women face. Objectives: This study aimed to characterize socio-cultural and knowledge-based barriers that affected TB diagnosis for women in Bhopal, India. Materials and Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with 13 affected women and 6 health-care workers. The Bhopal Diagnostic Microscopy Laboratory Register (n = 121) and the Bhopal district report (n = 261) were examined for diagnostic and care-seeking trends. Results: Women, especially younger women, faced socio-cultural barriers and stigma, causing many to hide their symptoms. Older women had little awareness about TB. Women often sought treatment from private practitioners, resulting in delayed diagnosis. Conclusions: Understanding these diagnostic and help-seeking behaviors barriers for women is critical for development of a gender-sensitive TB control program.
  2,127 235 4
Clinico-epidemiological profile, pandemic influenza a h1n1/2009 and seasonal influenza, august 2009-march 2013, Himachal Pradesh, India
Vinod Kumar Mehta, Pooja Sharma, Ramesh Chand Guleria, Sunite A Ganju, Digvijay Singh, Anil Kanga
January-March 2016, 41(1):69-71
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.170995  PMID:26917878
Background: Novel influenza A (H1N1) virus emerged in April, 2009, spread rapidly to become pandemic by June, 2009. Objective: To study the clinco-epidemiological profile of pH1N1and seasonal influenza (SI) from 2009 to 2013. Materials and Methods : Retrospective, hospital-based study was done by reviewing medical records for collecting demographic and clinical profile of the study samples. Result: Out of 969 samples, positivity and case fatality for pH1N1 and SI was 9.39 and 20.87% vs 11.76 and 7.89%, respectively. Among pH1N1and SI, sex distribution, mean age, and age group involved were 54.95% females, 37.10 years, and 20-29 years (23.08%) vs 43.86% females, 40.32 years, and 20-29 years (22.81%), respectively. Mortality shift was observed from younger to older and healthier, 75% to comorbid, 100% from 2009-2010 to 2012-13 for pH1N1. Conclusion: We observed seasonal variation, cocirculation, similar clinical features, decreased virulence, and community spread with respect to pH1N1 and SI from 2009-2013.
  1,536 172 3
Role of supportive supervision in capacity building of ICTC counselors
Sarita Sood
January-March 2016, 41(1):74-75
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.170998  PMID:26917880
  1,502 138 1
It costs in medical education
Kieran Walsh
January-March 2016, 41(1):72-73
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.170997  PMID:26917879
  1,354 137 -
Retraction: Profile of clients tested HIV positive in a voluntary counseling and testing center of a District hospital, Udupi

January-March 2016, 41(1):79-79
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.169685  PMID:26917883
  1,035 134 -
Retraction: Prevalence and association of physical activity with obesity: An urban, community-based, cross-sectional study

January-March 2016, 41(1):77-77
  834 247 -
Retraction: Musculoskeletal disorders: Epidemiology and treatment seeking behavior of secondary school students in a Nigerian community

January-March 2016, 41(1):78-78
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.169686  PMID:26917882
  907 127 -
Public health approaches to noncommunicable diseases
Megha Chandra Singh
January-March 2016, 41(1):76-76
  804 204 -
Erratum: Prevalence of tobacco use among children age group 13-15 years in Sikkim after 5 years of prohibitory legislation

January-March 2016, 41(1):80-80
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.169684  PMID:26917884
  624 120 -
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  2007 - Indian Journal of Community Medicine | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
  Online since 15th September, 2007