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   2014| April-June  | Volume 39 | Issue 2  
    Online since May 19, 2014

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Yoga and health
Davendra Kumar Taneja
April-June 2014, 39(2):68-72
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.132716  PMID:24963220
Yoga has been the subject of research in the past few decades for therapeutic purposes for modern epidemic diseases like mental stress, obesity, diabetes, hypertension, coronary heart disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Individual studies report beneficial effect of yoga in these conditions, indicating that it can be used as nonpharmaceutical measure or complement to drug therapy for treatment of these conditions. However, these studies have used only yoga asana, pranayama, and/ or short periods of meditation for therapeutic purposes. General perception about yoga is also the same, which is not correct. Yoga in fact means union of individual consciousness with the supreme consciousness. It involves eight rungs or limbs of yoga, which include yama, niyama, asana, pranayama, pratyahara, dharana, dhyana, and samadhi. Intense practice of these leads to self-realization, which is the primary goal of yoga. An analytical look at the rungs and the goal of yoga shows that it is a holistic way of life leading to a state of complete physical, social, mental, and spiritual well-being and harmony with nature. This is in contrast to purely economic and material developmental goal of modern civilization, which has brought social unrest and ecological devastation.
  1 5,096 353
Effectiveness of school-based intervention programs in reducing prevalence of overweight
Sajid Mahmood, Tahira Perveen, Allah Dino, Faisa Ibrahim, Jaishri Mehraj
April-June 2014, 39(2):87-93
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.132724  PMID:24963224
Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of school-based interventions program in reducing the prevalence of overweight or obesity among schoolchildren. Data source: Ovid Medline (1950-December 2012), Embase (1980-2012), CINAHL (1982-2012), secondary references, review articles, and expert in the field. Study selection: All published clinical trials were eligible for study if were randomized, methodologically strong-based on a validity assessment, aimed to evaluate a school-based intervention for childhood overweight or obesity, and measured outcome in term of prevalence/incidence difference in overweight and obesity among both groups. Studies involved in cost-effective analysis of school-based intervention have been excluded. Data from eligible studies abstracted and pooled for relative risk. Results: Five trials with 3,904 schoolchildren were included. Mean age of the students (boys and girls) ranges 8.6-12.6 years. Meta-analysis showed a statistical significance beneficial effect of school-based intervention programs on obesity status of schoolchildren (risk ratio (RR) 0.58, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.43-0.78) and suggested 42% reduction in prevalence of obesity among schoolchildren through school-based intervention programs. Individual studies also showed effectiveness of these school-based interventions. Conclusion: School-based intervention programs are effective in prevention of childhood overweight and obesity problem and our results quantitatively supported this argument.
  1 3,788 670
Health impact assessment: Need and future scope in India
Binny Dua, Anita S Acharya
April-June 2014, 39(2):76-81
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.132719  PMID:24963222
  - 1,660 312
Making sense of theories of leadership for capacity building
Sanjiv Kumar, Vivek S Adhish, Nandan Deoki
April-June 2014, 39(2):82-86
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.132721  PMID:24963223
  - 5,009 593
World witnesses a tumultuous year while India reports an eventful decade in the long story of polio eradication
Sanjay Chaturvedi
April-June 2014, 39(2):63-67
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.132714  PMID:24963219
With recent outbreaks in Syria and Horn of Africa, silent circulation of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) in Israel, West Bank, and Gaza, and fresh spate of violence against vaccinators and their security personnel in Pakistan, the world is facing a turbulent final ascent to the summit of polio eradication. On the positive side, we may also be witnessing the end of wild poliovirus type 3 (WPV3) and defused programmatic crisis caused by funding gaps, while India registers third consecutive polio-free year. Having a cogent endgame plan 2013-2018, informed by some cardinal lessons learned from an eventful decade in India, is also a very significant development. Now, there is a parallel pursuit against WPV and vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV). Endgame would also involve integration of at least one dose of affordable inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) to up-scaled routine immunization (RI), switch from trivalent oral polio vaccine (tOPV) to bivalent oral polio vaccine (bOPV) in 144 countries before 2018, stockpiling of mOPV, and simultaneous global cessation of bOPV before 2020. Role of antivirals in post-eradication era is still unclear. Some specific threats emerging at this stage are as follows: Global buildup of new birth cohorts in non-endemic countries with weak RI and downscaled supplementary immunization activities (SIAs), tremendous pressure on peripheral health workers, and fatigued systems. Cultural resistance to transnational programs is taking a violent shape in some areas. Differential interpretations of 'right to say no', on both sides of the divide, are damaging a global cause. Amidst all these concerns, let us not forget to underline the sacrifice made by frontline vaccinators working in some of the most challenging circumstances.
  - 2,289 251
Leprosy elimination monitoring (LEM) in India: A novel exercise of monitoring, learning, and capacity building
Sandeep Sachdeva, Ajay K. Sood
April-June 2014, 39(2):59-62
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.132713  PMID:24963218
  - 2,521 398
Increasing evidence of significance of nutrition during prenatal period: Pregnant women deserve better share of economic development
Varun Malhotra
April-June 2014, 39(2):118-119
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.132738  PMID:24963230
  - 964 175
Recruitment of young rural doctors: Are we adopting the qualitative and ethical approach?
Sukhminder Jit Singh Bajwa
April-June 2014, 39(2):120-121
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.132740  PMID:24963231
  - 938 152
What is needed to progress toward 100% routine immunization in India?
Senthil Amudhan Rajamoorthy
April-June 2014, 39(2):122-123
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.132743  PMID:24963232
  - 1,047 399
Attracting doctors to rural areas: Interventions and their outcomes is complex
Kieran Walsh
April-June 2014, 39(2):124-124
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.132744  PMID:24963233
  - 880 146
Sagar Borker, Shruthi Bhat
April-June 2014, 39(2):125-125
  - 827 123
Work-related psychosocial hazards among emergency medical responders (EMRS) in Mansoura city
Eman Omar Khashaba, Mona Abdel Fattah El-Sherif, Adel Al-Wehedy Ibrahim, Mostafa Ahmed Neatmatallah
April-June 2014, 39(2):103-110
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.132733  PMID:24963227
Purpose: This research was done to assess levels of psychosocial stress and related hazards [(burnout, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)] among emergency medical responders (EMRs). Materials and Methods: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted upon (140) EMRs and a comparative group composed of (140) nonemergency workers. The groups studied were subjected to semistructured questionnaire including demographic data, survey for job stressors, Maslach burn out inventory (MBI), Beck depression inventory (BDI), and Davidson Trauma scale for PTSD. Results: The most severe acute stressors among EMRs were dealing with traumatic events (88.57%), followed by dealing with serious accidents (87.8%) and young victims (87.14%). Chronic stressors were more commonly reported among EMRs with statistically significant differences (P < 0.05) except for social support with colleagues and supervisors. EMRs had statistically significant higher levels of emotional exhaustion (EE) (20%) and depersonalization (DP) (9.3%) compared with comparative group (4.3%, 1.4% respectively). Also, there was no statistically significant difference between two groups as regards lower personal achievement or depression symptoms (P > 0.05). There was increased risk of PTSD for those who had higher stress levels from death of colleagues [odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] = 2.2 (0.7-7.6), exposure to verbal or physical assault OR (95% CI) = 1.6 (0.5-4.4) and dealing with psychiatric OR (95% CI) 1.4 (0.53.7) (P > 0.05) Conclusion: EMRs group had more frequent exposure to both acute and chronic work-related stressors than comparative group. Also, EMRs had higher levels of EE, DP, and PTSD compared with comparative group. EMRs are in need for stress management program for prevention these of stress related hazards on health and work performance.
  - 2,568 253
Problematic mobile phone use and big-five personality domains
Motoharu Takao
April-June 2014, 39(2):111-113
Background: Although a mobile phone is useful and attractive as a tool for communication and interpersonal interaction, there exists the risk of its problematic or addictive use. Objectives: This study aims to investigate the correlation between the big-five personality domains and problematic mobile phone use. Materials and Methods: The Mobile Phone Problem Usage Scale and the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) were employed in this study. Survey data were gathered from 504 university students for multiple regression analysis. Results: Problematic mobile phone use is a function of gender, extraversion, neuroticism, openness-to-experience; however, it is not a function of agreeableness or conscientiousness. Conclusions: The measurement of these predictors would enable the screening of and intervening in the potentially problematic behaviors of mobile phone users.
  - 2,697 417
Epidemiological investigation of the jaundice outbreak in Lalkuan, Nainital district, Uttarakhand
Sadhana Awsathi, Vinita Rawat, Chandra Mohan Singh Rawat, Vandana Semwal, Sunil Janki Bartwal
April-June 2014, 39(2):94-97
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.132725  PMID:24963225
Background: In March 2013, cases of acute hepatitis were reported from Lalkuan, Nainital district. We investigated the outbreak to identify the source of infection and to facilitate control measures. Objectives: To study the distribution of hepatitis cases, to find the source of infection, and to initiate the control measures in the affected area. Materials and Methods: We defined a case of acute hepatitis as those cases that had jaundice with at least one of the following symptoms: Dark urine, fever, pain in abdomen, vomiting, and loss of appetite in the affected area between January and March 2013. Door-to-door survey was carried out. Thirteen blood samples were randomly collected from jaundice cases for immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody for hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV). Water samples were collected to test residual chlorine. Results: Total 2,785 individuals were surveyed; of which 240 were suffering from acute viral hepatitis (attack rate (AR) = 8.61%). Out of 13 serum samples, 10 were found positive for HEV IgM antibodies and three cases had IgM antibodies for both HAV and HEV, which confirmed a hepatitis E outbreak. The difference in attack rate of hepatitis of both the sexes was statistically significant (P < 0.001). The attack rate was significantly higher in age groups >12 years of age (P < 0.001). Environmental investigation also confirmed the sewage contamination of drinking water in the distribution system. The attack rate was much higher (29.4%) among those who were exposed to the leaking pipeline than the nonexposed (χ2 = 574.26, P < 0.01). Conclusion: HEV was confirmed as the major etiological agent in this outbreak that was transmitted by contaminated drinking water. The recognition of early warning signals, timely investigation, and application of specific control measures can contain the outbreak.
  - 2,006 386
Health resources in a 200,000 urban Indian population argues the need for a policy on private sector health services
Kheya Melo Furtado, Anita Kar
April-June 2014, 39(2):98-102
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.132727  PMID:24963226
Background: There are limited primary data on the number of urban health care providers in private practice in developing countries like India. These data are needed to construct and test models that measure the efficacy of public stewardship of private sector health services. Objective: This study reports the number and characteristics of health resources in a 200 000 urban population in Pune. Materials and Methods: Data on health providers were collected by walking through the 15.46 sq km study area. Enumerated data were compared with existing data sources. Mapping was carried out using a Global Positioning System device. Metrics and characteristics of health resources were analyzed using ArcGIS 10.0 and Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, Version 16.0 software. Results: Private sector health facilities constituted the majority (424/426, 99.5%) of health care services. Official data sources were only 39% complete. Doctor to population ratios were 2.8 and 0.03 per 1000 persons respectively in the private and public sector, and the nurse to doctor ratio was 0.24 and 0.71, respectively. There was an uneven distribution of private sector health services across the area (2-118 clinics per square kilometre). Bed strength was forty-fold higher in the private sector. Conclusions: Mandatory registration of private sector health services needs to be implemented which will provide an opportunity for public health planners to utilize these health resources to achieve urban health goals.
  - 1,375 197
Situation of malaria in Kolkata Municipal Corporation area: A secondary data analysis report 2011
Shibotosh Sen, Basudeb Mukhopadhyay
April-June 2014, 39(2):114-117
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.132737  PMID:24963229
A descriptive study was designed based on secondary data of Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC). Objectives: To estimate present status and trend of Malaria in KMC area; to determine time, place, person distribution of Malaria; to identify high-risk areas to mitigate future outbreak, and to recommend control strategies of Malaria. Materials and Methods: Three different sets of data were analyzed and the final estimate was obtained from the address confirmed database. Discussion: All the wards were high risk in boroughs 4 and 5. The Annual Blood Examination Rate (ABER) of KMC area declined to 5.29%. The falciparum percentage (Pf%) of KMC area was 8.91% in 2011. The ABER of Borough 14 was 1 but the Pf% was 14.6. ''Sen Factor'' may be calculated to plan the activities among the wards when the resources are limited. Conclusion: The ABER of Kolkata needs to be improved and Insecticide Treated Nets/ Long Lasting Insecticidal Nets must be considered to control the situation in addition to other regular vector-control measures and Behavior Change Communication activities. Cumulated ABER can be calculated for urban area to get an estimate of fever cases.
  - 5,056 226
Migrants to urban India: Need for public health action
Nitika, Ayush Lohiya, Baridalyne Nongkynrih, Sanjeev Kumar Gupta
April-June 2014, 39(2):73-75
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.132718  PMID:24963221
  - 1,615 355
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  2007 - Indian Journal of Community Medicine | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
  Online since 15th September, 2007