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   2013| July-September  | Volume 38 | Issue 3  
    Online since August 8, 2013

 
 
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LETTERS TO EDITOR
Modified kuppuswamy's socioeconomic scale: social researcher should include updated income criteria, 2012
Mohan Bairwa, Meena Rajput, Sandeep Sachdeva
July-September 2013, 38(3):185-186
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.116358  PMID:24019607
  45,132 2,128 5
CME
Glaucoma: An emerging peril
Rohit Saxena, Digvijay Singh, Praveen Vashist
July-September 2013, 38(3):135-137
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.116348  PMID:24019597
  8,662 367 -
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Judicious selection of M.D. thesis topic: Role of faculty in improving research in public health
DS Dhadwal, SR Mazta, A Gupta
July-September 2013, 38(3):184-185
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.116357  PMID:24019606
  3,527 328 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Indoor air pollution from biomass combustion and its adverse health effects in central India: An exposure-response study
Neelam D Sukhsohale, Uday W Narlawar, Mrunal S Phatak
July-September 2013, 38(3):162-167
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.116353  PMID:24019602
Background: Some of the highest exposures to air pollutants in developing countries occur inside homes where biofuels are used for daily cooking. Inhalation of these pollutants may cause deleterious effects on health. Objectives: To assess the respiratory and other morbidities associated with use of various types of cooking fuels in rural area of Nagpur and to study the relationship between the duration of exposure (exposure index [EI]) and various morbidities. Materials and Methods: A total of 760 non-smoking, non-pregnant women aged 15 years and above (mean age 32.51 ΁ 14.90 years) exposed to domestic smoke from cooking fuels from an early age, working in poorly ventilated kitchen were selected and on examination presented with various health problems. Exposure was calculated as the average hours spent daily for cooking multiplied by the number of years. Symptoms were enquired by means of a standard questionnaire adopted from that of the British Medical Research Council. Lung function was assessed by the measurement of peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR). PEFR less than 80% of the predicted was considered as abnormal pulmonary function. Results and Conclusions: Symptoms like eye irritation, headache, and diminution of vision were found to be significantly higher in biomass users (P < 0.05). Abnormal pulmonary function, chronic bronchitis, and cataract in biomass users was significantly higher than other fuel users (P < 0.05). Moreover an increasing trend in prevalence of symptoms/morbid conditions was observed with increase in EI. The presence of respiratory symptoms/morbid conditions was associated with lower values of both observed and percent predicted PEFR (P < 0.05 to 0.001). Thus women exposed to biofuels smoke suffer more from health problems and respiratory illnesses when compared with other fuel users.
  3,380 386 -
Association of Obesity with Hypertension Amongst School-Age Children Belonging to Lower income group and middle income group in national capital territory of Delhi
Supreet Kaur, HPS Sachdev, SN Dwivedi, R Lakshmi, Umesh Kapil, Neha Sareen
July-September 2013, 38(3):175-179
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.116355  PMID:24019604
Background and Objectives: Hypertension is one of the most common diseases world-wide and the prevalence in school-aged children appears to be increasing perhaps as a result of increased prevalence of obesity. Thus, the present study was planned to establish an association between body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) with hypertension amongst school children in the age group of 5-16 years belonging to lower income group (LIG) and middle income group (MIG) in National Capital Territory of Delhi. Subjects and Methods: Population proportionate to size methodology was adopted to select 30 clusters/schools in each LIG and MIG category. About 170 children from each school were selected randomly with the help of random number tables. Anthropometric measurements of weight, height and WC and blood pressure measurements were taken by using the standard methodology. Results and Interpretation : t0 he prevalence of high systolic blood pressure (SBP) in LIG and MIG school population was 3.8 and 4.4% with high WC and BMI are more likely to have hypertension.
  3,035 663 -
Pattern, awareness and perceptions of health hazards associated with self medication among adult residents of kano metropolis, northwestern Nigeria
Umar M Lawan, Isa S Abubakar, Abubakar M Jibo, Ahmed Rufai
July-September 2013, 38(3):144-151
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.116350  PMID:24019599
Background: Kano State is the most populous state, and one of those states pronounced with the highest prevalence of drug abuse in Nigeria. However, there is lack of documented data to back the assertion. Objective: We determined the pattern, awareness and perceptions of the adult residents of Kano metropolis about self medication. Materials and Methods: We used a descriptive cross-sectional design to study a random sample of 380 adult in Kano metropolis. Data was collected using semi-structured questionnaires that were pretested outside the study area. Data analysis was with Epi Info® 3.5.1. Results: The mean age of the subjects was 35.43 ± 15.10 years, majority were males (66.32%), singles (47.11%) and had at least secondary education (67.63%). About three-quarter (78.95%) admitted using drug (s) in the past without prescription. Drugs commonly consumed were antimalarials (42.10%), analgesics (40.56%), antibiotics (29.41%), and cough mixtures (13.31%). Common sources of drugs were patent medicine stores (62.54%) and the market (19.81%). Common reasons for self medication were long queues in the hospitals (38.39%), and in-accessibility to doctors (25.08%). About two-thirds (65.00%) correctly perceived that self medication could be hazardous; and half (51.58%) were aware of at least one hazard of self medication. Conclusion/Recommendations: Irrational drug use is a growing challenge to public health in Kano, Nigeria. Thus, drug regulatory agencies in Nigeria should work together to ensure that all drug retail outlets and drug sellers are registered, controlled drugs are dispensed only on prescription of the physicians; and the laws safeguarding drug use are duly enforced. Health authorities should also strengthen efforts towards health educating the public.
  3,271 379 2
EDITORIAL
Health in international development agenda: Present, past and future
Sanjiv Kumar
July-September 2013, 38(3):129-131
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.116346  PMID:24019595
  2,510 568 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Diabetes and hypertension in urban bhutanese men and women
Bhakta Raj Giri, Krishna Prasad Sharma, Rup Narayan Chapagai, Dorji Palzom
July-September 2013, 38(3):138-143
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.116349  PMID:24019598
Background: Bhutan is a mountainous country with 31% urban population. There is no information on prevalence of diabetes and hypertension in Bhutan yet. This was the first study of its kind conducted in the capital city. Objective: To determine prevalence of diabetes, impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and hypertension in urban Bhutanese population aged 25 to 74 years. Materials and Methods: Stratified two-stage sampling was adopted to include 2474 respondents (Males: 1132, Females: 1342) equally distributed among different age and sex groups. A questionnaire containing demographic, educational and social details and history of diabetes and hypertension was administered on the sampled population the previous evening and blood pressure measured the next morning in nearby camp where fasting blood samples were collected and an oral glucose tolerance test done. Results: Age and sex standardized prevalence of diabetes, IGT and IFG were 8.2.0, 21.6 and 4%, respectively. Only 66.5% of the population had normal blood sugar. Prevalence of diabetes and IGT increased progressively with increasing age. Prevalence of hypertension was 26% (Males: 28.3%, Females: 23.2%). It was observed that 54.1% of diabetes population had hypertension. Conclusion: The study shows that not only is prevalence of diabetes and hypertension high in the urban Bhutanese but also there is a high diagnosis and treatment gap in these disorders.
  2,660 410 2
Factors associated with morbidities among infants in three sub centre areas of belgaum district of south India: A longitudinal study
Nitin Joseph, Vijaya A Naik, Niranjana S Mahantshetti, Bhaskaran Unnikrishnan, Mahesh Mallapur, Shashidhar M Kotian
July-September 2013, 38(3):168-174
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.116354  PMID:24019603
Background: Health status of infants is a sensitive indicator of development and factors influencing it need to be better understood. Objectives: This study was conducted to search for factors associated with morbidity among infants and to find out their influence on weight gain during infancy. Materials and Methods: This longitudinal study was undertaken in south India from November 2004 till April 2006. A birth cohort of all children born during first 6 months of the study period were assessed at enrollment and followed up monthly till they attained 1 year of age. Results: Incidence of morbidity among infants was found to be least among those exclusively breast fed (EBF) for 6 months and most when EBF for less than 6 months (P = 0.045). It was also more when infants were weaned with a combination of animal milk, formula milk, semi-solids and solid diet and least when weaned only with semi-solids and solids (P = 0.018). Diarrheal episodes were more in infants who were bottle-fed (P < 0.001). Weight gain between 6 th and 12 th month of infancy was found to be significantly affected by various morbidities (P = 0.001). Incidence of morbidities was less among preterm babies and more among partially immunized (P < 0.001) babies with birth order ≥ 3 (P = 0.012), babies of mothers with low socio-economic and educational status. Delayed milestones during infancy was seen more in babies with history of birth asphyxia (P = 0.018). Conclusion: Several factors influenced incidence of morbidities and these morbidities had a negative effect on weight gain. Hence these factors need to be addressed to promote better child health.
  2,085 531 -
VIEW POINT
Mobile health clinics: Meeting health needs of the urban underserved
Limalemla Jamir, Baridalyne Nongkynrih, Sanjeev Kumar Gupta
July-September 2013, 38(3):132-134
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.116347  PMID:24019596
  2,244 372 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Infant deaths - data disparity and use of ante, intra and post-natal services utilization: An experience from tribal areas of Gujarat
Amul Patel, Pradeep Kumar, Naresh Godara, Vikas K Desai
July-September 2013, 38(3):152-156
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.116351  PMID:24019600
Background: Infant death depends upon the care during the infancy and also upon the service utilization during antenatal and intra-natal periods and with its decline, it is necessary to find the under-reporting if any and identify the most appropriate agency for its reporting. Objectives: (1) To document disparities between different reporting systems about infant deaths and find out the under-reporting if any and identify the most appropriate agency and (2) To identify utilization of health services during ante, intra and post-natal period for all infant deaths. Materials and Methods: Study was conducted in 51 villages of 3 Primary Health Centers (PHCs) from a tribal dominated Taluka (block) of South Gujarat during September - November 2005. Information was gathered for 1 year (1 September 2004 to 31 August 2005) from 4 sources namely health care system, Integrated Child development services (ICDS) scheme, Civil Registration System (CRS) and Investigator himself (Gold standard). Data was collected in a designed verbal autopsy questionnaire by house to house survey and analyzed in Epi Info. Results: A total of 48 infant deaths were recorded by investigator against reported 2, 10 and 8 infant deaths by CRS, Health System and ICDS respectively. While profiling these 48 infant deaths it was found that only 29.2% mothers received full antenatal care (ANC) and 60.4% delivered at home (by untrained personnel). Not a single delivery was done at PHCs or its sub centers (SC). In 25% cases there was poor cord care. 39.6% mothers did not breastfeed and 35.4% gave pre-lacteal feeding. Conclusions: There was gross underreporting of infant mortality in all 3 agencies. The utilization of ANC and post natal care (PNC) services was poor in these death cases. Health system and ICDS need to be sensitized to work in coordination to provide quality ANC, INC and PNC to prevent such avoidable infant deaths.
  2,128 405 -
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Adolescent health issues
Soumyadeep Bhaumik
July-September 2013, 38(3):187-187
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.116359  PMID:24019608
  1,657 355 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Feasibility of use of color-coded rings by nurse midwives: An appropriate technology based on partographic principles
Asha K Pratinidhi, Shubhada Suresh Javadekar, Aparna Nishikant Shrotri, Sudesh Vijay Gandham, Archana Patil, Krishna S Patil
July-September 2013, 38(3):157-161
PMID:24019601
Objectives: To study the feasibility of use of color-coded rings as a proxy for partograph for early identification of slow progress of labor. Materials and Methods: Color-coded rings were devised as a tool using appropriate technology to translate the partographic principles into simpler, easy to understand methodology. The rings were in pairs of 4 colors i.e., red, blue, yellow, and green, ranging from 3 cm to 10 cm in diameter with a difference of 4 cm between rings of the same color. The midwife performed p/v examination of the woman in labor to assess the initial cervical dilatation and identify corresponding ring. P/V was to be repeated after 4 hours to reassess the cervical dilatation and compare it with the bigger ring of the same color indicating expected cervical dilatation. If existing cervical dilatation measured lesser, it was interpreted as slow progress of labor indicating referral. Results: 44 women [23 (22.1%) primis and 21 (13%) multis] showed delayed progress of labor as judged by use of color-coded rings. 20 women (4 primis and 16 multis) showed satisfactory progress or delivered by the time arrangements for referral were made. Conclusion: Use of color-coded rings may serve as a valuable tool based on appropriate technology to assess slow progress of labor not only in the hands of nurse midwives but it also can serve as a training tool for TBAs to help facilitate timely referral of such cases.
  1,644 212 -
SHORT COMMUNICATION
Nutritional status of adolescents in agrarian crises-affected area of Maharashtra
Vijayalaxmi Kathawate, Soumitra Ghosh
July-September 2013, 38(3):180-183
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.116356  PMID:24019605
  1,220 256 -
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  2007 - Indian Journal of Community Medicine | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
  Online since 15th September, 2007