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   2012| October-December  | Volume 37 | Issue 4  
    Online since November 15, 2012

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Surrogacy: Ethical and Legal Issues
Pikee Saxena, Archana Mishra, Sonia Malik
October-December 2012, 37(4):211-213
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.103466  PMID:23293432
Surrogacy refers to a contract in which a woman carries a pregnancy "for"another couple. Number of infertile couples from all over the World approach India where commercial surrogacy is legal. Although this arrangement appears to be beneficial for all parties concerned,there are certain delicate issues which need to be addressed through carefully framed laws in order to protect the rights of the surrogate mother and the intended parents.
  10,440 311 1
Iron Sucrose Versus Oral Iron Therapy in Pregnancy Anemia
Syal Neeru, N Sreekumaran Nair, Lavanya Rai
October-December 2012, 37(4):214-218
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.103467  PMID:23293433
Background: Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is the most common medical problem in pregnancy. Parenteral iron is a useful treatment, although iron dextran use decreased due to anaphylaxis. Iron sucrose is a newer agent that has overcome the shortcomings of iron dextran. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and tolerance of intravenous iron sucrose (IVIS) therapy with oral iron (OI) therapy in pregnant women with IDA and to study the factors influencing treatment. Materials and Methods: This prospective, randomized clinical trial included pregnant women between 14 and 36 weeks with established IDA who were treated with IVIS or OI (ferrous fumarate). All patients were monitored for laboratory response and adverse effects. Independent sample-t test, Chi square test and ANOVA were used for statistical analysis. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Although hemoglobin increased in both the groups, increase in the reticulocyte count and percentage increase in hemoglobin was significantly higher in the IVIS group than in the OI group (23.62% vs. 14.11%). Serum ferritin was significantly higher in the IVIS group than in the OI group (P = 0.000). The IVIS group had no major side-effects. Compliance was good with OI, although 23% had gastrointestinal side-effects. Patient weight, gestation at diagnosis, initial hemoglobin and ferritin levels did not influence the response to treatment. Conclusion: IVIS is safe and effective in the treatment of IDA during pregnancy. Iron stores increased better with IVIS compared with OI.
  7,099 568 5
Incidence Rate of Acute Encephalitis Syndrome without Specific Treatment in India and Nepal
Nagabhushana Rao Potharaju
October-December 2012, 37(4):240-251
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.103473  PMID:23293439
Background: A performance target (PT) for the incidence rate (IR) of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) was not defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) due to lack of data. There is no specific treatment for ~90% of the AES cases. Objectives: (1) To determine the IR of AES not having specific treatment (AESn) in two countries, India and Nepal. (2) To suggest the PT. Subjects and Methods: This was a record-based study of the entire population of India and Nepal from 1978 to 2011. The WHO definition was used for inclusion of cases. Cases that had specific treatment were excluded. IR was calculated per 100,000 population per annum. Forecast IR was generated from 2010 to 2013 using time-series analysis. Results: There were 165,461 cases from 1978 to 2011, of which 125,030 cases were from India and 40,431 were from Nepal. The mean IR of India was 0.42 (s 0.24) and that of Nepal was 5.23 (s 3.03). IRs of 2010 and 2011 of India and that of 2011 of Nepal were closer to the mean IR rather than the forecast IR. IR of 2010 of Nepal was closer to the forecast IR. The forecast IR for India for 2012 was 0.49 (0.19-1.06), for 2013 was 0.42 (0.15-0.97) and for Nepal for both 2012 and 2013 was 5.62 (1.53-15.05). Conclusions: IRs were considerably different for India and Nepal. Using the current mean IR as PT for the next year was simple and practical. Using forecasting was complex and, less frequently, useful.
  7,221 382 4
Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment and Control of Diabetes Among Elderly Persons in an Urban Slum of Delhi
Arvind Kumar Singh, Kalaivani Mani, Anand Krishnan, Praveen Aggarwal, Sanjeev Kumar Gupta
October-December 2012, 37(4):236-239
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.103472  PMID:23293438
Background : The increasing proportion of elderly persons is contributing to an increase in the prevalence of diabetes. The residents of urban slums are more vulnerable due to poverty and lack of access to health care. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of diabetes in elderly persons in an urban slum and to assess their awareness, treatment and control of this condition. Materials and Methods : All persons aged 60 years and above, residing in an urban slum of Delhi, were included in this cross-sectional community- based study. Data were collected on sociodemographic variables. The participants' awareness and treatment of diabetes was recorded. Their fasting blood sugar was estimated using an automated glucometer. Diabetes was diagnosed if fasting blood glucose was ≥126 mg/dL, or if the participant was taking treatment for diabetes. Impaired fasting blood glucose was diagnosed if fasting blood glucose was 110-125 mg/dL. Results: Among the 474 participants studied, the prevalence of diabetes was estimated to be 18.8% (95% CI 15.3-21.5). It decreased with increasing age, and was higher among women. The prevalence of impaired fasting blood glucose was 19.8% (95% CI 16.3-23.7). It was higher among women. One-third of the diabetic participants were aware of their condition; two-thirds of these were on treatment and three-fourths of those on treatment had controlled fasting blood sugar level. The awareness, treatment and control were better among women. Conclusions : Diabetes is common among elderly persons in urban slums. Its magnitude and low awareness warrant effective public health interventions for their treatment and control.
  3,847 743 4
Human Resources for Health in India: Urgent Need for Reforms
Deoki Nandan, Dinesh Agarwal
October-December 2012, 37(4):205-206
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.103464  PMID:23293430
  2,857 485 -
Effect of Anti-Tobacco Audiovisual Messages on Knowledge and Attitude towards Tobacco Use in North India
Jagdish Kaur, Jugal Kishore, Monika Kumar
October-December 2012, 37(4):227-231
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.103470  PMID:23293436
Context: Tobacco use is one of the leading preventable causes of death globally. Mass media plays a significant role in initiation as well as in control of tobacco use. Aims: To assess the effect of viewing anti-tobacco audiovisual messages on knowledge and attitudinal change towards tobacco use. Settings and Design: Interventional community-based study. Materials and Methods: A total of 1999 cinema attendees (age 10 years and above), irrespective of their smoking or tobacco using status, were selected from four cinema halls (two urban, one semi-urban, and one rural site). In pre-exposure phase 1000 subjects and in post-exposure phase 999 subjects were interviewed using a pre-tested questionnaire. After collecting baseline information, the other days were chosen for screening the audiovisual spots that were shown twice per show. After the show, subjects were interviewed to assess its effect. Statistical Analysis Used: Proportions of two independent groups were compared and statistically significance using chi-square test was accepted if error was less than 0.05%. Results: Overall 784 (39.2%) subjects were tobacco users, 52.6% were non-tobacco users and 8.2% were former tobacco users. Important factors for initiation of tobacco use were peer pressure (62%), imitating elders (53.4%) and imitating celebrity (63.5%). Tobacco users were significantly less likely than non-tobacco users to recall watching the spots during movie (72.1% vs. 79.1%). Anti-tobacco advertisement gave inspiration to 37% of subjects not to use tobacco. The celebrity in advertisement influenced the people's attention. There was significant improvement in knowledge and attitudes towards anti-tobacco legal and public health measures in post exposure group. Conclusions: The anti-tobacco advertisements have been found to be effective in enhancing knowledge as well as in transforming to positive attitude of the people about tobacco use.
  2,717 441 -
Effect of Impairment and Disability on Health-Related Quality of Life of Elderly: A Community-Based Study from Urban India
Chandrakant Lahariya, Jyoti Khandekar, Shishir K Pradhan
October-December 2012, 37(4):223-226
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.103469  PMID:23293435
Introduction: Increasing population of elderly and the emergence of epidemic of chronic or (non-communicable) diseases, which is likely to adversely affects their health-related quality of life (HRQOL), has implications on health systems in developing countries such as India. A study was conducted to know the common impairments and disabilities and their effect on HRQOL in elderly population. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study on elderly, selected by cluster sampling from central Delhi, India, was conducted from April 2005 to February 2006. A pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire, along with Short Form -36 (SF-36) survey was used for data collection. The data was analyzed using Chi square and student's t test on SPSS v12 statistical software. P value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 200 elderly were included in the study. 71.5% subjects had at least one disability/impairment. Around 40% subjects reported their health being poor and another 50% of worsening of their health in the last 1 year. HRQOL score for people with and without chronic morbidity/disability was 51.8 and 73.5, respectively (P<0.05), with overall mean score 56.7 (±17.2). The most commonly affected HRQOL domains were Role Physical, Physical Functioning, and General Health. The HRQOL and domain scores decreased with increasing age, and females had lower mean scores than males (P<0.05). Conclusion: The HRQOL of elderly in urban India is severely affected by impairments and disabilities. There is an immediate need for specific preventive and rehabilitative measures targeted on elderly to maintain their health related quality of life. This information may be utilized for designing any policy and/or program targeted for elderly in India and in other similar settings.
  2,532 525 -
Study of Clinical Profile and Antibiotic Sensitivity Pattern in Culture-positive Typhoid Fever Cases
Ashwini Kumar, Vinay Pandit, Seema Shetty, Chythra R Rao, Sanjay Pattanshetty, Charmaine M Samarasinghe
October-December 2012, 37(4):256-258
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.103475  PMID:23293441
Background: Salmonella enteric serotype Typhi has created a significant therapeutic problem as these strains have developed resistance to the commonly used antimicrobials for the treatment of typhoid fever. Objectives: To assess the clinical profile and sensitivity patterns to anti-typhoid drugs. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of 106 culture-positive typhoid cases admitted in a tertiary care hospital during the years 2005-2008. Results: Records of 106 patients were evaluated, 83 (78.3%) males and 23 (21.7%) females. Fever was present in all patients. Headache in 63 (59.4%) patients and generalized body ache in 53 (32.5%) patients were the most common symptoms, while spleenomegaly in 47 (44.3%) patients and hepatomegaly in 42 (39.6%) patients were the common presenting signs. A maximum sensitivity of 96.6% was observed with cephalosporins, whereas a resistance of 29.2% was seen with fluoroquinolones. Conclusion: A high degree of sensitivity was noted to chloramphenicol, ampicillin and sulphonamides, showing a trend of roll-back of sensitivity to conventional antibiotics.
  2,673 279 -
A Study on Impact of School-Based Health and Nutrition Education in Control of Nutritional Anemia Among Primary School Children in Rural West Bengal
Dibakar Haldar, Tutul Chatterjee, Aditya Prasad Sarkar, Sukamal Bisoi, Asish Kr Biswas, Jadav Chandra Sardar
October-December 2012, 37(4):259-262
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.103476  PMID:23293442
  2,553 398 -
Clinical-Epidemiological Profile of Influenza A H1N1 Cases at a Tertiary Care Institute of India
Vijaydeep Siddharth, Vineet Goyal, Vipin Kumar Koushal
October-December 2012, 37(4):232-235
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.103471  PMID:23293437
Introduction: Influenza virus is a common human pathogen that has caused serious respiratory illness and death over the past century. In April 2009, a new strain of Influenza virus A H1N1, commonly referred to as "swine flu," began to spread in several countries around the world, and India confirmed its first case on 16 May 16 2009. Aim: To study the clinical and epidemiological profile of Influenza A H1N1 cases at the Government Medical College and Hospital, Chandigarh. Materials and Methods: Clinical epidemiological characteristics of Influenza A H1N1 cases from May 2009 to April 2010 were retrospectively, descriptively analyzed using data from the Influenza A H1N1 screening center and isolation ward at the Government Medical College and Hospital, Chandigarh. Data were Analyzed using MS Excel software. Results: At GMCH, till April 2010, a total of 4379 patients were screened for Influenza A H1N1, of which 365 patients were tested. The most common symptoms were fever (87.6%), cough (49.77%), sore throat (27%) and breathlessness (23.9%). The most common presentation (42.30%) of Influenza A H1N1 cases was fever and cold-like features, not cough. 29.58% (108) of the tested patients were found to be positive for the disease. Maximum cases were detected in the month of December, and the patients less than 40 years of age accounted for 81.4% (44 cases) of the cases. Influenza A H1N1 resulted in death of 54.9% (28) of the admitted cases, of which 46% (12) deaths occurred within 48 h of admission. Conclusion: On the basis of these findings, it can be safely hypothesized that prevalence of Influenza A H1N1 is high in the younger population, and fever, cough and sore throat are the most common symptoms with which the patients usually present.
  2,630 279 1
Urgent Need to Orient Public Health Response to Rapid Nutrition Transition
Umesh Kapil, Harsh Pal Singh Sachdev
October-December 2012, 37(4):207-210
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.103465  PMID:23293431
India is currently undergoing a rapid transition on economic, demographic, epidemiologic, nutrition, and sociological fronts. There is evidence of a decline in undernutrition with a simultaneous escalation in overnutrition and associated non-communicable diseases (NCDs). However, the current concern and national policy response for tackling malnutrition in India is still primarily restricted to undernutrition diagnosed on the basis of body size (anthropometry). A complex range of interacting factors have been linked to the rising trend of overnutrition and associated NCDs from a global perspective. The burden of overnutrition and associated morbidities is rapidly escalating to alarming proportions, particularly in urban areas and high socio-economic status groups. The poor are not spared from this transition. It is predicted that a more rapid transition may occur amongst poor populations in future with higher economic development. The need of the hour is to launch an integrated public health response to the dual burden beginning from pregnancy and early life. This will obviously require careful deliberation of the strategy and interventions, and a multi-sectoral approach, especially involving the health, women and child development, nutrition, education, agriculture, food processing, trade, architecture, water supply and sanitation, community and non-governmental organizations.
  2,432 306 -
Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis: Mass Drug Administration in Endemic Areas of (Bidar District) Karnataka-2008
TS Ranganath, N Ramakrishna Reddy
October-December 2012, 37(4):219-222
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.103468  PMID:23293434
Background : Lymphatic Filariasis is a mosquito transmitted disease, caused by parasitic worm Wuchereria bancrofti. Global Programme for Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis was established in early 2000. The strategy recommended by the World Health Organization is annual Mass Drug Administration (MDA) of single-dose of Diethylcarbamazine 6 mg/kg (DEC), distributed to inhabitants of Filariasis endemic areas, excluding children below 2 years of age, pregnant women, and seriously ill persons, and Morbidity Management. The health system distributes the drugs by a door-to-door strategy. Objective : To assess the coverage and compliance of MDA in Bidar district during the campaign in November 2008. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional population-based house-to-house visit. Outcome is assessed as actual coverage and compliance, in Percentage and proportions. Results: Eight clusters, total eligible population of 1 131 individuals were interviewed. The coverage rate was 78% with variation across different areas. The compliance with drug ingestion was 68%. Conclusion : The effective coverage was below the target (85%). Side effects of DEC were minimum, the overall coverage was better in rural areas compared with urban areas.
  2,326 291 1
Burden of Hospitalized Pediatric Morbidity and Utilization of Beds in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata, India
Rabindra Nath Roy, Prabha Shrivastava, Dilip Kumar Das, Indranil Saha, Aditya Prasad Sarkar
October-December 2012, 37(4):252-255
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.103474  PMID:23293440
Background: Childhood morbidity consumes a substantial portion of health care resources in terms of hospital bed utilization, and overload in hospital ward remains a major concern in many countries, including India. A possible way to minimize the problem of scarcities of bed is to analyze the pattern of bed utilization by causes and plan services accordingly. Objectives: To determine the burden of pediatric morbidity and utilization pattern of pediatric beds in a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of pediatric inpatient's records was conducted over a period of 1 year from 1 January 2007 to 31 December 2007. Results: Of 3983 total admitted cases, about one-third were infants, of which neonatal and post-neonatal age group constituted 45% and 55% of the cases, respectively. In terms of bed-day utilization, infants, 1-4 years and 5-11 years age group accounted for 35.10%, 32.58% and 32.32% of total days of admission, respectively. Utilization of pediatric beds by major causes of morbidity was respiratory tract infection (22.23%), convulsive disorder (12.68%), accident and poisoning (6.07%), diarrheal disease (4.97%) and chronic hemolytic anemia (4.42%). Conclusion: A minor change in admission policy through provision of day care unit for management of certain cases would allow efficient use of hospital beds.
  2,142 237 -
Statistical Analysis and Evaluation of CD4 Count after 6 Months on ART
N Dravid Mrudula, U Phute Suwarna, RK Khadse, Patil Minal, D Kulkarni Shubhangi
October-December 2012, 37(4):266-267
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.103480  PMID:23293446
  1,452 173 -
Public Health Management Education in India
Samir Mallick
October-December 2012, 37(4):263-263
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.103477  PMID:23293443
  1,201 159 -
Role of Primary Care Physicians in Mass Casualty Incidents
Neeti Rustagi, Jugal Kishore
October-December 2012, 37(4):265-265
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.103479  PMID:23293445
  1,163 133 -
Chargeless/Free Availability of Medical Literature: The Ethical Need for Development of Global Healthcare
Prasanna R Deshpande, Anantha N Naik
October-December 2012, 37(4):264-264
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.103478  PMID:23293444
  1,149 112 -
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  2007 - Indian Journal of Community Medicine | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
  Online since 15th September, 2007