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   2012| January-March  | Volume 37 | Issue 1  
    Online since March 19, 2012

 
 
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CME
Health promotion: An effective tool for global health
Sanjiv Kumar, GS Preetha
January-March 2012, 37(1):5-12
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.94009  PMID:22529532
Health promotion is very relevant today. There is a global acceptance that health and social wellbeing are determined by many factors outside the health system which include socioeconomic conditions, patterns of consumption associated with food and communication, demographic patterns, learning environments, family patterns, the cultural and social fabric of societies; sociopolitical and economic changes, including commercialization and trade and global environmental change. In such a situation, health issues can be effectively addressed by adopting a holistic approach by empowering individuals and communities to take action for their health, fostering leadership for public health, promoting intersectoral action to build healthy public policies in all sectors and creating sustainable health systems. Although, not a new concept, health promotion received an impetus following Alma Ata declaration. Recently it has evolved through a series of international conferences, with the first conference in Canada producing the famous Ottawa charter. Efforts at promoting health encompassing actions at individual and community levels, health system strengthening and multi sectoral partnership can be directed at specific health conditions. It should also include settings-based approach to promote health in specific settings such as schools, hospitals, workplaces, residential areas etc. Health promotion needs to be built into all the policies and if utilized efficiently will lead to positive health outcomes.
  29,075 660 4
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Antibiotic resistance pattern of community acquired uropathogens at a tertiary care hospital in Jaipur, Rajasthan
Smita Sood, Ravi Gupta
January-March 2012, 37(1):39-44
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.94023  PMID:22529539
Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are amongst the most common infections described in outpatients setting. Objectives : A study was conducted to evaluate the uropathogenic bacterial flora and its antimicrobial susceptibility profile among patients presenting to the out-patient clinics of a tertiary care hospital at Jaipur, Rajasthan. Materials and Methods : 2012 consecutive urine specimens from symptomatic UTI cases attending to the outpatient clinics were processed in the Microbiology lab. Bacterial isolates obtained were identified using biochemical reactions. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) production was determined by the double disk approximation test and the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (formerly NCCLS) confirmatory method. Results: Pathogens were isolated from 346 (17.16%) of the 2012 patients who submitted a urine sample. Escherichia coli was the most frequently isolated community acquired uropathogen accounting for 61.84% of the total isolates. ESBL production was observed in 23.83% of E. coli strains and 8.69% of Klebsiella strains. With the exception of Nitrofurantoin, resistance to agents commonly used as empiric oral treatments for UTI was quite high. Conclusion : The study revealed E. coli as the predominant bacterial pathogen for the community acquired UTIs in Jaipur, Rajasthan. An increasing trend in the production ESBLs among UTI pathogens in the community was noted. Nitrofurantoin should be used as empirical therapy for primary, uncomplicated UTIs.
  7,094 680 10
Community-based study of reproductive tract infections among women of the reproductive age group in the urban health training centre area in Hubli, Karnataka
Sangeetha S Balamurugan, ND Bendigeri
January-March 2012, 37(1):34-38
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.94020  PMID:22529538
Background: Reproductive tract infections (RTIs) is a global health problem including both sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and non-sexually transmitted infections (non-STIs) of the reproductive tract. RTI/STI is an important concern, as it possess risk for human immunodeficiency virus transmission. Hence a community study was done in Hubli, in terms of active search of the cases based on the symptoms, clinical examination, and feasible laboratory tests along with providing treatment, counseling, and follow-up. Objectives: The objective was to know the prevalence of RTIs among the reproductive age group women and the socio-demographic factors influencing the occurrence of the disease. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was done using a simple random sampling technique to select households. A pretested structured pro forma was used to collect data on RTIs from 656 women of 15-45 years, residing in the field practice area. This was followed by clinical examination and collection of samples for laboratory tests in Urban Health Training Centre, attached to Karnataka Institute of Medical Sciences, Hubli. Results: The prevalence of RTIs among the reproductive age group women was 40.4% based on their symptoms, with majority having abnormal vaginal discharge. The prevalence of RTIs based on clinical finding was 37.4% with majority having vaginitis. The laboratory test revealed a prevalence of 34.3% with majority having Candidiasis. The influence of socio-demographic factors like increased parity, poor socio-economic conditions, poor menstrual hygiene, illiteracy has its direct effect on occurrence of RTI in the community. Conclusion: This depicts that whereever possible, clinical and laboratory findings should support self-reported morbidity to know the exact prevalence of any disease in the community.
  5,200 624 4
Self-medication patterns and drug use behavior in housewives belonging to the middle income group in a city in northern India
Jyoti Kaushal, Mahesh C Gupta, Pooja Jindal, Savita Verma
January-March 2012, 37(1):16-19
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.94013  PMID:22529534
Objectives: The objective was to assess the self-medication patterns and drug use behavior in housewives belonging to the middle income group in a city of Haryana State in Northern India. Materials and Methods: A detailed questionnaire designed to assess the self-medication patterns and drug use behavior and interview technique was used to elicit the requisite information. One hundred housewives of the middle income group were interviewed in Rohtak. Results: Most of the housewives were in the habit of keeping the medicines though only 73% of them were in the habit of using it without any prescription. Also it was seen that those housewives who were taking self-medication were better educated than those not indulged in self-medication. All of them were using allopathic drugs on a regular basis while other modes of medications were less used. The self-medication was most commonly based on the previous prescriptions issued by the doctors followed by the suggestions from friends, advertisement on the television, and newspapers. For most of them the reasons for self-medication were financial restraints and lack of time to go to the medical practitioner. Conclusions: The study delineates the difference in the self-medication patterns and drug use behavior in housewives in a city of Northern India. The results emphasize the need for comprehensive measures for intervention strategies to promote rational drug therapy by improving prescribing patterns and influencing self-medication.
  5,009 562 1
All slums are not equal: Maternal health conditions among two urban slum dwellers
Zulfia Khan, Saira Mehnaz, Abdul Razzaq Siddiqui, Athar Ansari, Salman Khalil, Sandeep Sachdeva
January-March 2012, 37(1):50-56
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.94027  PMID:22529541
Background: Pregnant women inhabiting urban slums are a "high risk" group with limited access to health facilities. Hazardous maternal health practices are rampant in slum areas. Barriers to utilization of health services are well documented. Slums in the same city may differ from one another in their health indicators and service utilization rates. The study examines whether hazardous maternal care practices exist in and whether there are differences in the utilization rates of health services in two different slums. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in two urban slums of Aligarh city (Uttar Pradesh, India). House-to-house survey was conducted and 200 mothers having live births in the study period were interviewed. The outcome measures were utilization of antenatal care, natal care, postnatal care, and early infant feeding practices. Rates of hazardous health practices and reasons for these practices were elicited. Results: Hazardous maternal health practices were common. At least one antenatal visit was accepted by a little more than half the mothers, but delivery was predominantly home based carried out under unsafe conditions. Important barriers to utilization included family tradition, financial constraints, and rude behavior of health personnel in hospitals. Significant differences existed between the two slums. Conclusion: The fact that barriers to utilization at a local level may differ significantly between slums must be recognized, identified, and addressed in the district level planning for health. Empowerment of slum communities as one of the stakeholders can lend them a stronger voice and help improve access to services.
  4,264 411 2
SHORT COMMUNICATION
Age-sex distribution and seasonality pattern among influenza virus infected patients in Delhi, 2009-2010
Binod Kumar, Dibya R Pati, Madhu Khanna, Prashant Kumar, Mradul K Daga, Varinder Singh, S Khare, SN Gaur
January-March 2012, 37(1):57-58
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.94028  PMID:22529542
  3,800 150 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Beliefs regarding diet during childhood illness
Asha D Benakappa, Poojita Shivamurthy
January-March 2012, 37(1):20-24
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.94016  PMID:22529535
Background: Fifty percent to 70% of the burden of childhood diarrhea and respiratory infections is attributable to undernutrition. It is compounded by food restriction during illness due to false beliefs, leading to a vicious cycle of malnutrition and infection. In the long run, it decreases the child's productivity, which is an obstacle to sustainable socioeconomic development. Objectives: To assess the dietary practices during different illnesses, to study the role of education, culture and religion in feeding an ill child and to create awareness against detrimental practices. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken among 126 caregivers of ill children using an open-ended pretested questionnaire. Statistical package for social sciences software was used for data analysis. Simple proportions, percentages and Chi-square were used. Results: Caregivers believed that a child must be fed less during illness. Educational status did not play a role in maintaining beliefs, but elders and religion did. Doctors too were responsible for unwanted dietary restrictions. Media did not have an impact in spreading nutrition messages. Decreased breast feeds, initiating bottle feeds, feeding diluted milk and reducing complementary feeds during illness was widely practiced. Calorie intake during illness was very less and statistically significant. Firmly rooted beliefs about "hot" and "cold" foods lead to restriction of food available at home. Conclusions: Healthy feeding practices were few, and inappropriate ones predominant. Dietary education was overlooked. While planning community-based nutrition programs, firmly rooted beliefs should be kept in mind. Involving the elderly caregivers and mothers actively along with the health workers is the need of the hour.
  3,330 477 1
EDITORIAL
India without poliomyelitis: Time to make it a reality
Arun K Yadav, Atul Kotwal, Hariom Gupta, Aniket Kulkarni, Ashok K Verma
January-March 2012, 37(1):1-4
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.94005  PMID:22529531
  3,029 412 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
A time motion study in the immunization clinic of a tertiary care hospital of Kolkata, West Bengal
Amitabha Chattopadhyay, Ritu Ghosh, Sucharita Maji, Tapobroto Guha Ray, Saibendu Kumar Lahiri
January-March 2012, 37(1):30-33
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.94019  PMID:22529537
Background: A time and motion study is used to determine the amount of time required for a specific activity, work function, or mechanical process. Few such studies have been reported in the outpatient department of institutions, and such studies based exclusively on immunization clinic of an institute is a rarity. Materials and Methods: This was an observational cross sectional study done in the immunization clinic of R.G. Kar Medical College, Kolkata, over a period of 1 month (September 2010). The study population included mother/caregivers attending the immunization clinics with their children. The total sample was 482. Pre-synchronized stopwatches were used to record service delivery time at the different activity points. Results: Median time was the same for both initial registration table and nutrition and health education table (120 seconds), but the vaccination and post vaccination advice table took the highest percentage of overall time (46.3%). Maximum time spent on the vaccination and post vaccination advice table was on Monday (538.1 s) and nutritional assessment and health assessment table took maximum time on Friday (217.1 s). Time taken in the first half of immunization session was more in most of the tables. Conclusion: The goal for achieving universal immunization against vaccine-preventable diseases requires multifaceted collated response from many stakeholders. Efficient functioning of immunization clinics is therefore required to achieve the prescribed goals. This study aims to initiate an effort to study the utilization of time at a certain health care unit with the invitation of much more in depth analysis in future.
  2,828 440 2
Occupational exposure to human immunodeficiency virus in health care providers: A retrospective analysis
Varun Aggarwal, Anju Seth, Jagdish Chandra, Rohini Gupta, Praveen Kumar, Ashok Kumar Dutta
January-March 2012, 37(1):45-49
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.94024  PMID:22529540
Objectives: To determine the population at risk, risk factors, and outcome of occupational exposure to blood and body fluids in health care providers. Materials and Methods: Retrospective review of two and half year data of ongoing surveillance of occupational exposure to blood and body fluids in a tertiary care hospital. Results: 103 Health Care Providers (HCP) reported an occupational exposure to blood and body fluids during the period under review. These comprised 72 (69.9%) doctors, 20 (19.4%) nursing personnel, and 11 (10.6%) cleaning staff. Of the doctors, 65% were interns. 53.4% HCP had work experience of less than one year. Circumstances of exposure included clinical procedures (48%), sweeping/handling used sharps (29%), recapping (16%), and surgery (6.9%). 74.3% of the exposures were due to non-compliance with universal precautions and were thus preventable. The device most frequently implicated in causing injury was hollow bore needle (n=85, 82.5%). Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) status of the source was positive in 6.8% cases, negative in 53.4% cases, and unknown in remaining 39.8% cases. Postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) was indicated in 100 (97.08%) cases and was initiated within 2 h of exposure in 26.8% HCP. In 23.2% HCP, PEP initiation was delayed beyond 72 h of exposure due to late reporting. Thirteen HCP received expanded and the remaining received basic regime. Of the 82 HCP followed up, 15 completed the full course, while 55 stopped PEP after the first dose due to negative source status. Twelve HCP with exposure to blood of unknown HIV status discontinued PEP despite counseling. Complete follow-up for seroconversion was very poor among the HCP. HIV status at 6 month of exposure is not known for any HCP. Conclusions: Failure to follow universal precautions including improper disposal of waste was responsible for majority of occupational exposures. HCP need to be sensitized regarding hospital waste management, management of occupational exposure, need for PEP, and continued follow-up.
  2,862 333 3
VIEW POINT
Connecting the DOTS: Spectre of a public health iatrogenesis?
Rajib Dasgupta, I Ghanashyam
January-March 2012, 37(1):13-15
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.94011  PMID:22529533
  2,550 293 2
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Healthcare-seeking behavior of patients with epileptic seizure disorders attending a tertiary care hospital, Kolkata
Abhik Sinha, Sarmila Mallik, Debasish Sanyal, Prasenjit Sengupta, Samir Dasgupta
January-March 2012, 37(1):25-29
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.94018  PMID:22529536
Introduction : Neurological diseases are very important causes of prolonged morbidity and disability, leading to profound financial loss. Epilepsy is one of the most important neurological disorders Healthcare seeking by epilepsy patients is quite diverse and unique. Aims and Objectives: The study was conducted among the epilepsy patients, to assess their healthcare-seeking behavior and its determinants. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and fifteen epilepsy patients, selected by systematic random sampling, in the neuromedicine outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital were interviewed with a predesigned, pretested, semi-structured proforma. Results and Conclusion: More than 90% sought healthcare just after the onset of a seizure. The majority opted for allopathic medicine and the causes for not seeking initial care from allopaths were ignorance, faith in another system, constraint of money, and so on. A significant association existed between rural residence and low social status of the patients with initial care seeking from someone other than allopaths. No association was found among sex, type of seizure, educational status of the patients, and care seeking. The mean treatment gap was 2.98 ± 10.49 months and the chief motivators were mostly the family members. Patients for anti epileptic drugs preferred neurologists in urban areas and general practitioners in rural areas. District care model of epilepsy was proposed in the recommendation.
  2,275 219 1
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Euthanasia: Does the onus rest with the physicians?
Suravi Patra, Binod Kumar Patro
January-March 2012, 37(1):60-61
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.94030  PMID:22529544
  1,735 116 -
Is silence really golden?
Dilip Gude
January-March 2012, 37(1):59-59
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.94029  PMID:22529543
  1,557 122 -
Oral cancer screening
Somsri Wiwanitkit, Viroj Wiwanitkit
January-March 2012, 37(1):61-61
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.94031  PMID:22529545
  1,322 146 -
PADMASHREE AWARD
Padmashree award in the field of medicine and health care
Pradeep Kumar
January-March 2012, 37(1):62-62
PMID:22529546
  1,334 118 -
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  2007 - Indian Journal of Community Medicine | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
  Online since 15th September, 2007