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   2011| October-December  | Volume 36 | Issue 4  
    Online since January 3, 2012

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Role of early screening for diabetic retinopathy in patients with diabetes mellitus: An overview
Praveen Vashist, Sameeksha Singh, Noopur Gupta, Rohit Saxena
October-December 2011, 36(4):247-252
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.91324  PMID:22279252
Diabetes has emerged as a major public health problem in India. It is estimated that there were 40 million persons with diabetes in India in 2007 and this number is predicted to rise to almost 70 million by 2025. The impact of rapid urbanization, industrialization and lifestyle changes has led to an increasing trend in prevalence of diabetes and its associated complications such as neuropathy, nephropathy, vascular diseases (cardiac, cerebral and peripheral) and retinopathy. Diabetic retinopathy is a important cause of avoidable blindness in India. Treatment interventions at early stages of diabetic retinopathy can reduce burden of blindness due to diabetic retinopathy. With the available cost-effective methods of early screening, appropriate strategies/models need to be developed. Such models need to have a well-developed mode for screening, diagnosis and referral at each hierarchal level beginning from primary health centers to specialized institutes for eye care. The National Program for Control of Blindness of India recommends opportunistic screening for identification of diabetic retinopathy. Every opportunity of contact with high-risk cases for diabetes and/or diabetic retinopathy should be utilized for screening, diagnosis and referral. All the stakeholders including the private sector will need to play a role. Along with this, awareness generation and behavior change amongst the diabetics and care support systems should also be part of the overall model. A major role can be played by community participation and improving the health seeking behavior among diabetics in order to reach a larger population and increasing the compliance for continued care.
  10,929 360 24
Spiritual health scale 2011: Defining and measuring 4 th dimension of health
Neera Dhar, SK Chaturvedi, Deoki Nandan
October-December 2011, 36(4):275-282
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.91329  PMID:22279257
In the midst of physical comforts provided by the unprecedented developments in all spheres of life, the humanity is at cross roads and looking at something beyond these means. Spirituality has now been identified globally as an important aspect for providing answers to many questions related to health and happiness. The World Health Organization is also keen at looking beyond physical, mental and social dimensions of the health, and the member countries are actively exploring the 4 th Dimension of the health i.e. the spiritual health and its impact on the overall health and happiness of an individual. National Institute of Health and Family Welfare (NIHFW), realized this need and initiated a research study in this direction. In this study, an effort was made to define this 4 th Dimension of health from a common worldly person's perspective and measure it. 3 Domains, 6 Constructs and 27 Determinants of spiritual health were identified through a scientific process. A statistically reliable and valid Spiritual Health Scale (SHS 2011) containing 114 items has been developed. Construct validity and test- retest reliability has been established for urban educated adult population. The scale is first of its kind in the world to measure the spiritual health of a common worldly person, which is devoid of religious and cultural bias. Its items have universal applicability.
  6,763 514 23
Determinants of overweight and obesity in affluent adolescent in Surat city, South Gujarat region, India
Jagdish P Goyal, Nagendra Kumar, Indira Parmar, Vijay B Shah, Bharat Patel
October-December 2011, 36(4):296-300
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.91418  PMID:22279261
Background : Obesity is a major global burden. Low levels of physical activity, TV watching, and dietary pattern are modifiable risk factors for overweight and obesity in adolescent. Objective : The objective of this study was to determine risk factors for overweight and obesity among affluent adolescent, in Surat city in south Gujarat. Design : Cross sectional from July 2009 to April 2010. Setting : Two private schools with tuition fees more than Rs. 2000 per month, were selected randomly using a random table. Participants : The participants were adolescents, 12 to 15 years of age. Data collection : Pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire was used to elicit the information about dietary history and physical activity. Measurement : Height and weight was measured and BMI was calculated. Overweight and obesity were assessed by BMI for age. Student who had BMI for age >85 th and <95 th percentile of reference population were classified as overweight and BMI for age >95 th percentile of reference population were classified as obese (IAP Growth Monitoring Guidelines for Children from Birth to 18 Year). Result : The overall prevalence of obesity and overweight was 6.55% and 13.9% (boys: 6.7% and 15.1%; girls 6.4% and 13.35%). Final model of multiple logistic regression analysis showed that important determinants of overweight and obesity were low levels of physical activity, watching television or playing computer games, and consuming junk foods, snacks and carbonated drinks. Conclusion : The magnitude of obesity and overweight among affluent adolescent of Surat city was found to be 6.55% and 13.9%, respectively. Low level of physical activity, watching TV or playing computer games, and dietary pattern predisposed the adolescent to overweight/obesity.
  4,566 625 16
Ante natal care services utilization, delivery practices and factors affecting them in tribal area of North Maharashtra
Sachin S Mumbare, Rekha Rege
October-December 2011, 36(4):287-290
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.91331  PMID:22279259
Background: Utilization of Ante natal care (ANC) services is poor in the tribal areas, causing increased maternal morbidity and mortality. Objective: This study was carried out to find out ANC services utilization, delivery practices and factors affecting them in a tribal area of North Maharashtra in Nashik district. Design: Cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in two tribal blocks of Nashik district. Cluster sampling technique was used. 210 mothers in the selected clusters, who had delivered within last 1 year, were interviewed. Information about the ANC services utilization and place of delivery was recorded. Relevant socio-demographic data were also collected. Results: Adequate ANC services utilization was found to be 64.76%. Home deliveries were 34.29% and home deliveries conducted by untrained persons were 15.24%. Conclusion: The utilization of ANC services and deliveries at health centers were significantly associated with education of the women and their spouses, and the socioeconomic status of the family. Main reasons for inadequate utilization of ANC services were financial, unawareness about ANC services, etc. Place of delivery was associated with the type of the family. Traditional practices were the most common reason for conducting the deliveries at home.
  4,325 833 10
Lifestyle and gallstone disease: Scope for primary prevention
Sandeep Sachdeva, Zulfia Khan, M Athar Ansari, Najam Khalique, Afzal Anees
October-December 2011, 36(4):263-267
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.91327  PMID:22279255
Objective : To study the antecedent risk factors in the causation of gallstone disease in a hospital-based case control study. Materials and Methods: Cases (n = 150) from all age groups and both sexes with sonographically proven gallstones were recruited over a duration of 3 months from the surgical wards of a tertiary care teaching hospital. Modes of presentation were also noted among cases. Age- and sex-matched controls (n = 150) were chosen from among ward inmates admitted for other reasons. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed for selected sociodemographic, dietary, and lifestyle-related variables. Results : Females had a higher prevalence of gallstone disease than males (P < 0.01). Among males, the geriatric age group (>60 years) was relatively more susceptible (28%). Prepubertal age group was least afflicted (3.3%). Univariate analysis revealed multiparity, high fat, refined sugar, and low fiber intakes to be significantly associated with gallstones. Sedentary habits, recent stress, and hypertension were also among the significant lifestyle-related factors. High body mass index and waist hip ratios, again representing unhealthy lifestyles, were the significant anthropometric covariates. However, only three of these, viz., physical inactivity, high saturated fats, and high waist hip ratio emerged as significant predictors on stepwise logistic regression analysis (P < 0.05). Conclusion : Gallstone disease is frequent among females and elderly males. Significant predictor variables are abdominal adiposity, inadequate physical activity, and high intake of saturated fats; thus representing high risk lifestyles and yet amenable to primary prevention.
  4,199 304 9
Association of overweight and obesity with breast cancer in India
P Singh, Umesh Kapil, NK Shukla, SVS Deo, SN Dwivedi
October-December 2011, 36(4):259-262
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.91326  PMID:22279254
Background : In women, cancer of the breast is one of the most common incident cancer and cause of death from cancer. Anthropometric factors of weight, height, and body mass index (BMI) have been associated with breast cancer risk. Objectives : To study the association of overweight and obesity with breast cancer in India. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based matched case-control study was conducted. Three hundred and twenty newly diagnosed breast cancer patients and three hundred and twenty normal healthy individuals constituted the study population. The subjects in the control group were matched individually with the patients for their age ±2 years and socioeconomic status. Anthropometric measurements of weight and height were recorded utilizing the standard equipments and methodology. The paired 't' test and univariate logistic regression analysis were carried out. Results: It was observed that the patients had a statistically higher mean weight, body mass index, and mid upper arm circumference as compared to the controls. It was observed that the risk of breast cancer increased with increasing levels of BMI. Overweight and obese women had Odd's redio of 1.06 and 2.27, respectively, as compared to women with normal weight. Conclusions: The results of the present study revealed a strong association of overweight and obesity with breast cancer in the Indian population.
  3,618 653 7
Prevalence of diabetic complications in rural Goa, India
Nafisa C Vaz, AM Ferreira, MS Kulkarni, Frederick S Vaz, NR Pinto
October-December 2011, 36(4):283-286
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.91330  PMID:22279258
Objective : To determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and its associated diabetic complications in rural Goa, India. Materials and Methods: A community-based study was carried out in a rural setting in Goa, India. About 1,266 participants were selected by systematic random sampling. The participants were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire and were subjected to anthropometric, clinical evaluation and biochemical investigations. American Diabetes Association criteria were used to determine the prevalence of diabetes and standard operational definitions were used to define the diabetic complications. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 14.0 while chi-square and chi-square for trend were the tests used. Results: Among the total 1,266 study participants about 130 (10.3%) were diabetics. The prevalence of the associated diabetic complications were as follows viz. neuropathy (60%), CHD (32.3%) and cataract (20%), retinopathy (15.4%), peripheral vascular disease (11.5%) and cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs) (6.9%). A significant rising trend in the prevalence of all diabetic complications was observed with advancing duration of diabetes. Conclusion: The prevalence of DM and its associated complications was higher among the diabetic individuals in the rural setting of Goa, India. All the associated diabetic complications observed need to be addressed with appropriate prevention and control strategies.
  3,608 526 13
An epidemiological study of work-related musculoskeletal disorders among construction workers in Karimnagar, Andhra Pradesh
Trupti Bodhare, Sameer Valsangkar, Samir Bele
October-December 2011, 36(4):304-307
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.91420  PMID:22279263
  3,600 314 7
Final-year medical students' perceptions regarding the curriculum in public health
Mitrakrishnan Rayno Navinan, Dilushi Rowena Wijayaratne, Senaka Rajapakse
October-December 2011, 36(4):268-274
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.91328  PMID:22279256
Background: The Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, has an integrated curriculum in which teaching of public health takes place through a series of modules which span the full five-year study programme. Aim: To assess final year medical student perceptions regarding the public health curriculum and to identify factors which influence this. Materials and Methods: The study was cross sectional. Convenience sampling was utilized on final-year students of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka. A self-administered 4-point Likert scale questionnaire covered general opinion on public healthcare and perceptions about the curriculum. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Chi-square tests. Results: One hundred and eighty four students (94%) participated in the study. Eighty-two percent (148) viewed public health as an important field. Only 9% (16) were interested in a career in public health. A significant association was found between choosing public health as career and the following: perception of public health as an important field; holding a good opinion about public health prior to commencement of the course; having found the field-based experience enjoyable and beneficial to the community; and feeling competent to work in the community at the end of the course (P < 0.01). With regard to teaching methods, group activities and discussion-centered activities were identified positively (153, 83% and 125, 68% respectively). The majority of students indicated that they were not stimulated to read more on the subject or regularly revise what they have learnt, both during the introductory public health programme and during the final year. Conclusions: The curriculum has been able to create a positive opinion about public health. However, students lack enthusiasm to learn independently. Experiential, group-centered teaching activities and a constructivist approach may be more effective in promoting independent learning. Perceptions are important and should aid in structuring the curricula.
  2,869 440 -
The study of lipid profile, diet and other cardiovascular risk factors in children born to parents having premature ischemic heart disease
MR Savitha, B Sandeep
October-December 2011, 36(4):291-295
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.91334  PMID:22279260
Background: Dyslipidemia is a marker for ischemic heart disease (IHD), which can be detected in early childhood and tracks to adulthood. Dyslipidemia, along with factors like diet, obesity and sedentary activity, increases the risk of a child developing IHD in adulthood. Early detection and modification of these risk factors can prevent IHD. Objectives: To study the lipid profile in children born to parents with history of premature IHD and also to study the effect of diet, lifestyle factors, and obesity in the study group. Materials and Methods: Fifty children of parents with premature IHD and 50 control children without any family history of IHD were analyzed for cardiovascular risk factors such as lipid profile, body mass index (BMI) and hypertension. The effects of modifiable risk factors like diet and physical activity on lipid profile were analyzed. The correlation between parent and child lipid profile was studied. Results: Mean total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly higher (P<0.05) in children with family history of IHD as compared to children without family history. There was a positive correlation between lipid levels of parents and their children. Children with elevated BMI, a sedentary lifestyle, and excess oily/junk diet intake showed increased incidence of dyslipidemia (P<0.05). Conclusions: Children of IHD patients have significant incidence of dyslipidemia. The risk factors like BMI, diet and physical activity increase the incidence of dyslipidemia. Therefore, all children of premature IHD patients should be screened for dyslipidemia.
  2,872 366 2
Promoting adolescent health and development in South-East Asia
Samlee Plianbangchang
October-December 2011, 36(4):245-246
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.91323  PMID:22279251
  2,226 489 2
Diabetes: Time to look beyond gluttony and laziness
Ashok Kumar Tiwari
October-December 2011, 36(4):253-258
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.91325  PMID:22279253
  2,375 290 2
Dentition status, treatment needs and dental aesthetic index scores of individuals attending special schools
Rekha P Shenoy, Vijaya Hegde, Prashanth K Shenai
October-December 2011, 36(4):301-303
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.91419  PMID:22279262
  2,202 199 3
Role of journal clubs in undergraduate medical education
Tamoghna Biswas
October-December 2011, 36(4):309-310
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.91422  PMID:22279265
  2,046 225 3
Dilemmas in Immunization?
M Salman Shah
October-December 2011, 36(4):308-308
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.91421  PMID:22279264
  1,474 202 -

October-December 2011, 36(4):312-312
  1,171 147 -
In fond memory of Dr. Ishwar Chandra Tiwari
Namrta Sharma
October-December 2011, 36(4):311-311
  1,236 75 -

October-December 2011, 36(4):312-312
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  2007 - Indian Journal of Community Medicine | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
  Online since 15th September, 2007