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   2011| July-September  | Volume 36 | Issue 3  
    Online since October 22, 2011

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A study on consciousness of adolescent girls about their body image
Swati Dixit, GG Agarwal, JV Singh, Surya Kant, Neelam Singh
July-September 2011, 36(3):197-202
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.86520  PMID:22090673
Background: Perceived body image is an important potential predictor of nutritional status. Body image misconception during adolescence is unexplored field in Indian girls. Objectives: To study the consciousness of adolescent girls about their body image. Materials and Methods: This multistage observational study was conducted on 586 adolescent girls of age 10-19 years in Lucknow district (151 from rural, 150 from slum, and 286 from urban area) of Uttar Pradesh, India. Information on desired and actual body size was collected with the help of predesigned questionnaire. Results: 20.5% of studied girls show aspiration to become thin, who already perceived their body image as too thin. 73.4% adolescent girls were satisfied with their body image, while 26.6% were dissatisfied. The dissatisfaction was higher among girls of urban (30.2%) and slum (40.0%) areas in comparison to rural (22.5%) area. Percentage of satisfied girls was less in the 13-15 years (69.9%) age groups in comparison to 10-12 years (76.5%) and 16-19 years (76.4%). Among girls satisfied with their body image, 32.8% girls were found underweight, and 38.4% were stunted. Underweight girls (42.1%) and stunted girls (64.9%) were higher in number within satisfied girls of slum area. Among all of these adolescent girls, 32.8% of girls had overestimated their weight, while only 4.9% of girls had underestimated their weight. Conclusions: This study concludes that desire to become thin is higher in adolescent girls, even in those who already perceived their body image as too thin.
  7,794 442 4
Non-pharmacological interventions in hypertension: A community-based cross-over randomized controlled trial
Hema Subramanian, M Bala Soudarssanane, R Jayalakshmy, D Thiruselvakumar, D Navasakthi, Ajit Sahai, LG Saptharishi
July-September 2011, 36(3):191-196
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.86519  PMID:22090672
Background: Hypertension is the most prevalent non-communicable disease causing significant morbidity/mortality through cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and renal complications. Objectives: This community-based study tested the efficacy of non-pharmacological interventions in preventing/controlling hypertension. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-over randomized controlled trial (RCT) of the earlier RCT (2007) of non-pharmacological interventions in hypertension, conducted in the urban service area of our Institute. The subjects, prehypertensive and hypertensive young adults (98 subjects: 25, 23, 25, 25 in four groups) were randomly allotted into a group that he/she had not belonged to in the earlier RCT: Control (New Group I), Physical Exercise (NG II)-brisk walking for 50 to 60 minutes, three to four days/week, Salt Intake Reduction (NG III) to at least half of their previous intake, Yoga (NG IV) for 30 to 45 minutes/day, five days/week. Blood pressure was measured before and after eight weeks of intervention. Analysis was by ANOVA with a Games-Howell post hoc test. Results: Ninety-four participants (25, 23, 21, 25) completed the study. All three intervention groups showed significant reduction in BP (SBP/DBP mmHg: 5.3/6.0 in NG II, 2.5/2.0 in NG III, and 2.3/2.4 in NG IV, respectively), while the Control Group showed no significant difference. Persistence of significant reduction in BP in the three intervention groups after cross-over confirmed the biological plausibility of these non-pharmacological interventions. This study reconfirmed that physical exercise was more effective than Salt Reduction or Yoga. Salt Reduction, and Yoga were equally effective. Conclusion: Physical exercise, salt intake reduction, and yoga are effective non-pharmacological methods for reducing blood pressure in young pre-hypertensive and hypertensive adults.
  5,760 708 11
A study of the swine flu (H1N1) epidemic among health care providers of a medical college hospital of Delhi
Om Prakash Rajoura, Rupali Roy, Paras Agarwal, Anjur Tupil Kannan
July-September 2011, 36(3):187-190
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.86518  PMID:22090671
Background: Influenza viruses cause annual epidemics and occasional pandemics that have claimed the lives of millions. Understanding the role of specific perceptions in motivating people to engage in precautionary behavior may help health communicators to improve their messages about outbreaks of new infectious disease generally and swine flu specifically. Objectives: To study the knowledge and practices of health care providers regarding swine flu and to study the attitudes and practices of health care providers toward the prevention of the swine flu epidemic. Materials and Methods: The present study was a cross-sectional (descriptive) study and was conducted in the month of September, 2009, among doctors and nurses. A maximum of 40% of the total health care providers of GTB Hospital were covered because of feasibility and logistics, and, therefore, the sample size was 334. Results: Around 75% of the health care providers were aware about the symptoms of swine flu. Mostly, all study subjects were aware that it is transmitted through droplet infection. Correct knowledge of the incubation period of swine flu was known to 80% of the doctors and 69% of the nurses. Knowledge about high-risk groups (contacts, travelers, health care providers) was observed among 88% of the doctors and 78.8% of the nurses. Practice of wearing mask during duty hours was observed among 82.6% of doctors and 85% of nurses, whereas of the total study population, only 40% were correctly using mask during duty hours. Conclusions: Significant gaps observed between knowledge and actual practice of the Health Care Provider regarding swine flu need to be filled by appropriate training. Data indicate that the health care providers are very intellectual, but they do not themselves practice what they preach.
  5,990 278 -
Hand hygiene compliance in the intensive care units of a tertiary care hospital
Sarit Sharma, Shruti Sharma, Sandeep Puri, Jagdeep Whig
July-September 2011, 36(3):217-221
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.86524  PMID:22090677
Context: Hand hygiene (HH) is the most important measure to prevent hospital-acquired infections but the compliance is still low. Aims: To assess the compliance, identify factors influencing compliance and to study the knowledge, attitude and perceptions associated with HH among health care workers (HCW). Settings and Design: Cross-sectional study conducted in 42 bedded Medical (Pulmonary, Medicine and Stroke) intensive care units (ICU) of a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: HCWs (doctors and nurses) were observed during routine patient care by observers posted in each ICU and their HH compliance was noted. Thereafter, questionnaire regarding knowledge, perception and attitudes toward HH was filled by each HCW. Statistical Analysis: Percentages and χ2 test. Results: The overall compliance was 43.2% (394/911 opportunities). It was 68.9% (31/45) in the intensivists, 56.3% (18/32) in attending physicians, 40.0% (28/70) in the postgraduate residents and 41.3% (301/728) in the nurses. Compliance was inversely related to activity index. Compliance for high, medium and low risk of cross-transmission was 38.8% (67/170), 43.8% (175/401) and 44.7% (152/340), respectively. Conclusions: Compliance of the study group is affected by the activity index (number of opportunities they come across per hour) and professional status. The HCWs listed less knowledge, lack of motivation, increased workload as some of the factors influencing HH.
  4,354 334 4
Public health education in India: Need and demand paradox
Kavya Sharma, Sanjay Zodpey
July-September 2011, 36(3):178-181
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.86516  PMID:22090669
  3,859 410 5
Relationship of psychosocial risk factors, certain personality traits and myocardial infarction in Indians: A case-control study
Rajni Gupta, Jugal Kishore, Yogesh Bansal, MK Daga, RC Jiloha, Rajeev Singal, GK Ingle
July-September 2011, 36(3):182-186
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.86517  PMID:22090670
Objective: To investigate the relationship of psychosocial factors (lack of social support, stress and subjective well-being) and personality traits with myocardial infarction (MI). Materials and Methods: A case-control study involving 100 cases and 100 matched controls was conducted in Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi. Results: Stress over 1 year was significantly higher in cases (P < 0.001). However, difference was not significant when scores of social support (P = 0.2), Presumptive Stressful Life Event (PSLE) over lifetime (P = 0.058) and subjective well-being (P = 0.987) were compared. MI was significantly associated with hyperactive (P < 0.001), dominant (P = 0.03), egoistic (P < 0.001) and introvert (P < 0.001) personalities. Conclusion: Certain personality traits and recent stress may be important risk factors of MI, especially in Indians. The finding may have implications on the preventive strategies planned for MI patients.
  3,273 413 1
Quality of life and its determinants in people living with human immunodeficiency virus infection in Puducherry, India
T Mahalakshmy, KC Premarajan, Abdoul Hamide
July-September 2011, 36(3):203-207
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.86521  PMID:22090674
Context: With anti-retroviral therapy (ART) for human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) coming into picture, quality of life (QOL) has gained importance. Knowledge on the factors affecting QOL would be helpful in making important policy decisions and health care interventions. Aims: The aim of this study is to assess the quality of life of people living with HIV (PLWH) and to identify the factors influencing their QOL. Materials and Methods: The study was done among 200 PLWH attending a tertiary care hospital, and three Non Governmental Organizations at Puducherry, India, from November 2005 to May 2007. QOL was assessed using HIV specific World Health Organization Quality Of Life scale (WHOQOL-HIV) - BREF questionnaire which has six domains (physical, psychological, level of independence, social relationships, environment and spirituality/religiousness/personal belief). Social support and stigma were measured using "Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support" and "HIV Stigma Scale," respectively, using Likert Scale. Factors influencing QOL were identified using backward stepwise multiple linear regression with the six domain scores as the dependent variables. Results: Male: Female ratio was 1:1 and 58% were in early stage of the disease (stage I/II). Psychological and SRPB (Spirituality Religiousness and Personal Beliefs) domains were the most affected domains. All the regression models were statistically significant (P<0.05). The determination coefficient was highest for the social relationship domain (57%) followed by the psychological domain (51%). Disease stage and perceived social support significantly influenced all the domains of WHOQOL. Younger age, female gender, rural background, shorter duration of HIV, non-intake of ART and greater HIV related stigma were the high risk factors of poor QOL. Conclusion: Interventions such as ART, family, vocational and peer counseling would address these modifiable factors influencing QOL, thereby improving the QOL of PLWH.
  3,098 431 7
Social audit in health sector planning and program implementation in India
Monika Puri, Chandrakant Lahariya
July-September 2011, 36(3):174-177
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.86515  PMID:22090668
  3,033 415 1
Maternal deaths in a tertiary health care centre of Odisha: An in-depth study supplemented by verbal autopsy
Biswajit Paul, Bijeeyani Mohapatra, Krishna Kar
July-September 2011, 36(3):213-216
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.86523  PMID:22090676
Background: Maternal mortality is a reflection of the care given to women by its society. It is tragic that deaths occur during the natural process of child birth and most of them are preventable. Objectives: The present study was undertaken to find out the causes and contributing factors of maternal deaths. Materials and Methods: All maternal deaths occurring in a year in the medical college and hospital were traced and interviews were taken from the relatives as well as the health care providers who were present at the time of death of the woman. Results: Out of the total maternal deaths, 72% belonged to 20-30 yrs age group, also 46.5% were illiterate, and majority deaths (60.5%) were from low socio-economics status. Direct causes were responsible for 76.7% of maternal deaths. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were most common (32.6%) cause of direct deaths, while malaria (9.3%) and anemia (7%) were most common indirect causes. Most of the women had to use their own resources to travel to health care facilities. Delays at different levels, often in combination, contributed to the maternal deaths. Conclusions: The study will serve as an eye-opener to the bottlenecks present in the community as well as in the health facility so as to take appropriate measures to prevent maternal deaths.
  3,040 314 5
Domestic violence against nurses by their marital partners: A facility-based study at a tertiary care hospital
Kamlesh Kumari Sharma, Manju Vatsa
July-September 2011, 36(3):222-227
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.86525  PMID:22090678
Background: In recent times, domestic violence against women by marital partners has emerged as an important public health problem. Objectives: 1. To determine the prevalence, characteristics and impact of domestic violence against nurses by their marital partners, in Delhi, India. 2. To identify nurses' perceptions regarding acceptable behavior for men and women. Materials and Methods: A facility-based pilot study was conducted at All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi. Data were collected using self-administered standardized questionnaire, among 60 ever married female nurses working at AIIMS hospital, selected by convenience sampling. The principal outcome variables were controlling behavior, emotional, physical and sexual violence by marital partners. Data were analyzed using SPSS 12 software. The test applied was Fisher's exact test and 1-sided Fisher's exact test. Results: Sixty percent of nurses reported marital partner perpetrated controlling behavior, 65% reported emotional violence, 43.3% reported physical violence and 30% reported sexual violence. About 3/5 th of nurses (58%) opined that no reason justified violence, except wife infidelity (31.67%). Of the physically or sexually abused respondents, 40% were ever injured, and 56.7% reported that violence affected their physical and mental health. Conclusion: There is a high magnitude of domestic violence against nurses and this is reported to have affected their physical and mental health.
  3,061 231 2
Association of blindness and hearing impairment with mortality in a cohort of elderly persons in a rural area
Nilesh Agrawal, M Kalaivani, Sanjeev K Gupta, Puneet Misra, K Anand, Chandrakant S Pandav
July-September 2011, 36(3):208-212
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.86522  PMID:22090675
Background: Studies in developed nations have reported an association of blindness and hearing impairment with mortality in elderly persons. Objectives: To study the association of blindness and hearing impairment with mortality in a cohort of elderly persons in rural north India. Materials and Methods: This community-based prospective study was conducted in eleven randomly selected villages, in Ballabgarh block, Haryana. A cohort of 1422 participants, of age 60 years and above, was examined at baseline, for their visual and hearing status. Data on the sociodemographic factors, various comorbidities, activities of daily living, and self-rated health were recorded. Baseline data was collected for the period May 2008 to August 2008. Follow-up data collection for mortality was completed in December 2009. The median follow-up period was 518 days. Results: One hundred out of 1422 elderly (7.0%) participants died during the follow-up period. Significant hazard ratios were found after adjustment for various comorbid conditions. On adjustment for sociodemographic factors (age, sex, and literacy), neither blindness nor hearing impairment was found to be significantly associated with mortality. After adjustment for all covariates in the study, hearing impairment (Hazard Ratio = 2.13; 95% CI, 1.29 - 3.54) was found to be significantly associated with mortality in the age group ΃70 years. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that hearing impairment was an independent risk factor for mortality in people aged ΃70 years. Similar studies with a longer period of follow-up are required in India, to guide public health interventions.
  2,533 302 3
Postpartum blue is common in socially and economically insecure mothers
Narasimhaiah G Manjunath, Giriyappa Venkatesh, Rajanna
July-September 2011, 36(3):231-233
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.86527  PMID:22090680
  2,586 164 -
Indians can do better at improving child survival
Sanjiv Kumar
July-September 2011, 36(3):171-173
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.86514  PMID:22090667
  2,348 340 2
Modular teaching: An alternative to routine teaching method for undergraduate medical students
S Srikanth, Thirunaaukarasu , BK Behera, P Mahajan
July-September 2011, 36(3):237-238
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.86529  PMID:22090682
  1,915 157 -
Coinfection of two age old diseases
Mary Grace, Shameemurahman
July-September 2011, 36(3):228-230
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.86526  PMID:22090679
  1,834 169 1
Adverse drug events monitoring of live attenuated pandemic influenza vaccine
Pramod B Akat, Mangala B Murthy, Vitthal B Karande, Shreyas R Burute
July-September 2011, 36(3):234-236
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.86528  PMID:22090681
  1,785 121 -
One year of experience with H1N1 Infection: clinical observations from a tertiary care hospital in Northern India
Tanvir Samra, Mridula Pawar, Amlendu Yadav
July-September 2011, 36(3):241-243
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.86533  PMID:22090686
  1,690 95 1
Work stress in first trimester causes low birth weight baby
Ritesh Singh, Neeti Rustagi
July-September 2011, 36(3):238-239
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.86530  PMID:22090683
  1,582 156 -
Estimating catastrophic health expenditures: Need for improved methodology and interpretation
Shankar Prinja, Ramesh Verma
July-September 2011, 36(3):239-240
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.86531  PMID:22090684
  1,610 125 2
Biomedical Research Methodology including Biostatistical Applications
AK Sharma (Deceased), Varun Prakash
July-September 2011, 36(3):244-244
  1,509 162 -
Adolescent tobacco use and role model influence: Interpreting it right!
Raman Deep Pattanayak, Sanjay Kumar Pattanayak
July-September 2011, 36(3):241-241
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.86532  PMID:22090685
  1,329 151 -
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  Online since 15th September, 2007