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   2009| July-September  | Volume 34 | Issue 3  
    Online since August 29, 2009

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Breast feeding practices and newborn care in rural areas: A descriptive cross-sectional study
K Madhu, Sriram Chowdary, Ramesh Masthi
July-September 2009, 34(3):243-246
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.55292  PMID:20049304
Context: Breastfeeding practices play an important role in reducing child mortality and morbidity. This study was aimed to describe the breastfeeding practices prevalent in rural areas. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to describe the breastfeeding and newborn care practices in rural areas and the secondary objective was to describe the factors affecting the initiation and duration of breastfeeding. Settings and Design: The study was conducted in primary health care center (PHC) that is attached to a medical college in Kengeri, rural Bangalore, Karnataka. Materials and Methods: Mothers with children who were 9 months old who came to the PHC for measles vaccination were included in the study and data was collected using the pre-tested questionnaire on breastfeeding and newborn practices. Results: Our study shows 97% of the mothers initiated breastfeeding, 19% used pre lacteal feeds, 90% had hospital deliveries and 10% had home deliveries, and 50% used a house knife to cut the umbilical cord among home deliveries. Conclusions: This study emphasizes the need for breastfeeding intervention programs especially for the mother during antenatal and postnatal check-ups and practices like discarding the colostrum and early/late weaning are still widely prevalent and need to be addressed.
  10,726 1,515 11
Teenage pregnancy: A socially inflicted health hazard
Bratati Banerjee, GK Pandey, Debashis Dutt, Bhaswati Sengupta, Maitraeyi Mondal, Sila Deb
July-September 2009, 34(3):227-231
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.55289  PMID:20049301
Background: Early marriage and confinement are contributing factors to high maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. Objective: To assess the magnitude of the problem of teenage pregnancy and its complications. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based cohort study was undertaken over 4 months among women admitted to a rural hospital in West Bengal. The study cohort comprised of teenage mothers between 15-19 years old and a control cohort of mothers between 20-24 years old. Data included demographic variables, available medical records, and complications viz. anemia, preterm delivery, and low birth weight. Anemia was defined as a hemoglobin level below 10 gm% during the last trimester of pregnancy, preterm delivery was defined as occurring within 37 weeks of gestation, and low birth weight was defined as babies weighing less than 2500 grams at birth. Result: Teenage pregnancy comprised 24.17% of total pregnancies occurring in the hospital during the study period. The study group had 58 subjects and the control group had 91 subjects. The prevalence of anemia was significantly higher ( P <0.05) in the women in the teenage group (62.96%) than in the women in the control group (43.59%). However, severe anemia with a hemoglobin level below 8 gm% was only found in the control group. Preterm delivery occurred significantly more ( P <0.001) in the study group (51.72%) than in the control group (25.88%). The incidence of low birth weight was significantly higher ( P <0.0001) among the group of teenagers (65.52%) than among the women in the control group (26.37%). Not a single newborn was above 3 kg in the study group, while none were below 1.5 kg in the control group. The mean birth weight was 2.36 kg in the study group and 2.74 kg in the control group; the difference was strongly significant ( P <0.001). Conclusion: The study shows that anemia, preterm delivery, and low birth weight were more prevalent among teenagers than among women who were 20-24 years old. This indicates the need for enhancing family welfare measures to delay the age at first pregnancy, thereby reducing the multiple complications that may occur in the young mother and her newborn baby.
  10,368 816 11
CME
National rural health mission: Time to take stock
Arun Kumar Sharma
July-September 2009, 34(3):175-182
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.55268  PMID:20049291
  9,620 1,425 16
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Period prevalence and sociodemographic factors of hypertension in rural Maharashtra: A cross-sectional study
Sampatti Sambhaji Todkar, Venktesh V Gujarathi, Vinay S Tapare
July-September 2009, 34(3):183-187
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.55269  PMID:20049292
Background: Hypertension is most common cardiovascular disease and it account for large proportion of all cardiovascular deaths and disability worldwide. Research Questions: What is the level of prevalence of hypertension in rural area? What are the soociodemographic factors associated with hypertension? Objectives: To find out prevalence of hypertension in rural area. Study Design: A community-based cross-sectional study setting : Rural Health Training Centre Paithan, field practice area of govt. medical college Aurangabad, Maharashtra. Participants: 1297 persons aged 19 years and above. Study Period: June 2005 to December 20 06. Materials and Methods: A house-to-house survey was conducted by the author himself, interviewed the participants by systematic random sampling method, using pretested structured standard questionnaire. Two independent blood pressure (BP) readings were taken in sitting position by visiting each participant at their home. Hypertension was defined as systolic BP more than or equal to 140 mm of Hg or diastolic BP more than or equal to 90 mm of Hg or those individuals currently taking antihypertensive treatment. Statistical Tests: Percentiles, Chi Square test, Chi-Square for linear trend, multiple logistic regression analysis on SPSS software Version 10. Results: Overall prevalence of hypertension in the study subjects was 7.24%. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified various factors significantly associated with hypertension were age, sex, BMI, additional salt intake, smoking, DM, alcohol consumption, and higher socioeconomic status. Conclusions: The overall prevalence of hypertension in study subjects was 7.24%.
  9,375 1,001 14
SHORT ARTICLES
Knowledge and attitudes of Anganwadi supervisor workers about infant (breastfeeding and complementary) feeding in Gondia district
Amar Taksande, Satish Tiwari, Alka Kuthe
July-September 2009, 34(3):249-251
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.55294  PMID:20049306
  7,446 567 1
EDITORIAL
New poverty line and growth chart bring forth sharp inequalities in the Indian population
Sanjiv Kumar Bhasin
July-September 2009, 34(3):171-172
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.55266  PMID:20049289
  5,864 737 -
SHORT ARTICLES
Overweight, obesity and influence of stress on body weight among undergraduate medical students
Soma Gupta, Tapobrata Guha Ray, Indranil Saha
July-September 2009, 34(3):255-257
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.55296  PMID:20049308
  5,355 578 3
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Sleep deprivation predisposes Gujarati Indian adolescents to obesity
Wasim A Shaikh, Minal Patel, SK Singh
July-September 2009, 34(3):192-194
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.55282  PMID:20049294
Background and Aim: Recent studies on various populations indicate that lack of sleep is one of the potential risk factors predisposing the youth to obesity. Since there is a significant rise in obesity among Indian youth and because research indicating the role of sleep in development of obesity among Indian population is scant, the current study was undertaken to assess the effect of sleep duration on adiposity among Gujarati Indian adolescents. Materials and Methods: A randomized cross-sectional study was done on 489 voluntarily participating Indian adolescents in the age group of 16-19 years. Participants were grouped into two categories 1). Adequate Sleep Duration at Night (more than seven hours, ASDN) and 2) Inadequate Sleep Duration at Night (less than seven hours, IASDN) as reported by the participants. The participants were later assessed for adiposity in terms of BMI, BF % , FM, FMI and waist circumference, meal frequency per day and physical activity status. Results: In both boys as well as girls, the BMI, BF%, FM and FMI were significantly lower in the ASDN group than the IASDN group. However, there was an insignificant difference in the meal frequency and physical activity status between the ASDN and IASDN group. Conclusion : Inadequate sleep duration increases adiposity among Gujarati Indian adolescents but further studies are required to find out the mechanisms through which sleep affects adiposity in this population.
  5,191 427 10
A cross-sectional study to determine prevalence of obesity in high income group colonies of Gwalior city
Ranjana Tiwari, Dhiraj Srivastava, Neeraj Gour
July-September 2009, 34(3):218-222
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.55287  PMID:20049299
Background: Obesity has become a major chronic disorder affecting the larger population more than any other disease in the world. Objectives: 1) To determine the prevalence of obesity in both sexes in persons aged 30 years and above. 2) To determine the relationship of epidemiological determinants on the obesity status in the study subjects. Materials and Methods: The present study had been undertaken in literate high income group colonies of Gwalior city in which persons aged 30 years and above, in a family, were interviewed. A house-to-house survey method on a pre-designed, pre- tested structured questionnaire was used. Information regarding socio-demographic profile, eating habits and current health status were recorded. Anthropometric data regarding height, weight and blood pressure was also taken. The data was collected and analyzed using statistical software and chi square and proportional statistical test were applied. Results: The study showed that 34.4% of males and 31.3 % of females, both aged 30years and above were either obese or over weight. There was a statistically significant difference noted in the likening of fried food and fast food between obese and overweight persons and persons with normal body mass index. Conclusions: It can be concluded from the present study that obesity is a chronic illness. Early detection of it can prevent various complications associated with it. BMI plays a crucial role in its early detection as it is simple to calculate and can even detect the pre-obesity stage in time.
  4,028 504 8
Unmet family planning need: Differences and levels of agreement between husband-wife, Haryana, India
Kapil Yadav, Bir Singh, Kiran Goswami
July-September 2009, 34(3):188-191
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.55281  PMID:20049293
Research question : Is there agreement between husbands and wives regarding unmet need of family planning? Hypothesis : The unmet need of family planning is perceived more by women then their husbands. Objective : 1) To ascertain the unmet needs of family planning for husbands and wives. 2) To ascertain the level of agreement between husbands and wives regarding unmet needs of family planning. Design: A cross-sectional survey Setting: Dayalpur village in Intensive field practice area of Comprehensive Rural Health Services project (CRHSP), Ballabgarh, Haryana. Study Period: July 2003- June 2005. Participants included 200 married couples selected by simple random sampling. Statistical Analysis: Level of agreement between husbands and wives was analyzed using Kappa statistics. Results: Unmet need for family planning was 11% (22 out of 200) for husbands and 17.5% (35 out of 200) for wives. The difference was seen both in unmet need for spacing (M-3.5% vs. F-6%) as well as limiting family size (M-7.5% vs. F-11.5%). Overall, 93.5% concordance was observed amongst husbands and wives. In all the cases where disagreement was seen (6.5%), wives reported having unmet need for contraception whereas their husbands perceived none. The unadjusted Kappa statistic was 0.73 and prevalence adjusted Kappa was 0.88. Conclusion: Unmet need for family planning was significantly higher for wives compared to husbands. Despite high degrees of agreement amongst the couples, the nature of disconcordance reinforces the need for policy makers to take into account the perspective of men.
  3,990 534 7
Prevalence of common ocular morbidities in adult population of Aligarh
Inaamul Haq, Zulfia Khan, Najam Khalique, Ali Amir, Fatima A Jilani, Meena Zaidi
July-September 2009, 34(3):195-201
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.55283  PMID:20049295
Aims and Objectives: To determine the prevalence of common ocular morbidities (cataract, refractive errors, glaucoma, and corneal opacities) and their demographic and sociocultural correlates. Settings and Design: The present cross-sectional study was conducted in the field practice areas of the Department of Community Medicine, JNMC, AMU, Aligarh, for a period of one year, from September 2005 to August 2006. Materials and Methods: Systematic random sampling was done to select the required sample size. All adults aged 20 years and above in the selected households were interviewed and screened using a 6/9 illiterate 'E' chart. Those who could not read the 'E' chart were referred to the respective health training center for a complete eye examination by an ophthalmologist. Statistical Analysis: Chi- square test. Results: The prevalence of visual impairment, low vision, and blindness, based on presenting visual acuity was 13.0, 7.8, and 5.3%, respectively. The prevalence of cataract was 21.7%. Bilateral cataract was present in 16.9% of the population. Cataract was significantly associated with age, education, and fuel use. The prevalence of myopia, hypermetropia, and astigmatism was 11.5, 9.8, and 3.7%, respectively. Glaucoma was diagnosed in six patients, giving a prevalence rate of 0.9%. All the six patients of glaucoma were aged above 40 years. The prevalence of corneal opacity was 4.2%. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of treatable or preventable morbidities such as cataract, refractive errors, and corneal opacity.
  3,959 398 5
Prevalence of HIV/AIDS and prediction of future trends in north-west region of India: A six-year ICTC-based study
Nitya Vyas, Saroj Hooja, Parul Sinha, Anuj Mathur, Anita Singhal, Leela Vyas
July-September 2009, 34(3):212-217
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.55286  PMID:20049298
Background: The study was conducted to analyze previous six-year prevalence data of HIV infection in the Northwest region of India and predict future trends for a couple of years. Objectives: The study was conducted to aid SACS and NACO to plan and arrange resources for the future scenario. Materials and Methods: All the attendees of ICTC, Jaipur, from January 2002 to December 2007 were included and variables like age, sex, marital status, occupation, place of residence, pattern of risk behavior and HIV serostatus were studied. As per the strategy and policy prescribed by NACO, tests (E/R/S) were performed on the serum samples. Data was collected; compiled and analyzed using standard statistical methods. Future trends of HIV-prevalence in north-west India were anticipated. Results: The overall positivity rates among attendees of ICTC, were found to be 12.2% (386/3161), 11.8% (519/4381), 11.1% (649/5867), 13% (908/6983), 14% (1385/9911) and 17.34% (1756/10133) in the years 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006 and 2007 respectively. Future trends for the next couple of years depict further increase in prevalence without any plateau. Conclusion: Epidemiological studies should be carried out in various settings to understand the role and complex relations of innumerable behavioral, social and demographic factors, which will help, interrupt and control the transmission of HIV/ AIDS.
  3,812 419 5
Assessment of risk factors for development of Type-II diabetes mellitus among working women in Berhampur, Orissa
D Shobha Malini, A Sahu, Swapna Mohapatro, RM Tripathy
July-September 2009, 34(3):232-236
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.55290  PMID:20049302
Objectives: 1) Assess general health condition and anthropological parameters of the working women. 2) Identify prevalence of Type-II Diabetes among them. 3) Assess risk factors associated with development of diabetes. 4) Educate them about Life Style Modifications. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out in six educational institutes. A total of 100 working women were selected as study population. During the two-month study period, Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS) was estimated to identify the diabetics and the Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT). Information from the study population was collected through pre-tested questionnaire using several anthropometric measurements. Results: Out of 100 women, 24 were having FBS compatible with IGT or diabetes. The incidence was highest in 46 to 55 yr age group. 75% of women with diabetes or IGT were in higher income group. Body Mass Index was more than 25 kg/m 2 in maximum (75%) women having diabetes or IGT. 92% women with diabetes or IGT had their Waist Hip Ratio ≥0.85. Moreover, orientation towards healthy life style modification to control diabetes and its prevention was poor among the study population. Conclusion: Prevalence of diabetes and IGT was higher among urban working women and is increasing with increase in age. Obesity plays a major role in development of Type 2 diabetes. Several long- and short-term steps should be taken for promotion of healthy life style modifications to prevent diabetes and emergence of its complications.
  3,523 705 1
Sexual practice and perception of HIV/AIDS amongst men who have sex with men in Kolkata
Soumya Deb, Sinjita Dutta, Aparajita Dasgupta, Biswajit Biswas
July-September 2009, 34(3):206-211
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.55285  PMID:20049297
Background and Objectives: Men who have Sex with Men (MSM) are a vulnerable population and need special attention in the fight against the global pandemic of HIV/AIDS. A study was conducted in an MSM clinic to find out to their varied socio-demographic characteristics, their knowledge and attitude towards HIV/AIDS, and its association with their different sexual practices. Materials and Methods: Descriptive, cross sectional study conducted in an MSM clinic in central Kolkata. Results: A total of 108 MSM were studied over a period of six months. A majority (25%) were students, followed by drivers (22.2%), with mean age being 22.8 years. About 13.9% of them were illiterate and 30.6% of them married. A majority (75%) of the clients were initiated to first sexual act during adolescence. Most (44%) of them had indulged in sexual acts with two/three partners in the past one month. The most common form of sexual act was receptive anal sex (83.3%). The commonest reasons for indulging into such sexual acts with men were increased pleasure to have sex with men and increased sexual urge (38.9% and 27.8%) while 19.4% performed such acts in an intoxicated state. Only 22.2% ever used condom in the last one month during sexual acts. Their knowledge and positive attitude towards HIV/AIDS increased significantly with increase in literacy status ( P less than 0.01). Only 36 (33.3%) knew about HIV transmission through anal route while only 35.2% knew the correct method to use condom. Favorable sexual practices like using a condom or having fewer partners was more among the literates than the illiterates ( P less than 0.05). Alarmingly 44.4% felt that one should have sex without a condom if his sex partner was extremely attractive, 88.9% felt that using a condom was not necessary if his partner was clean and hygienic, 69.4% felt that anal sex is for fun, so no condom is required while 43.5% felt getting HIV was a matter of bad luck. Conclusion: Proper IEC to promote condom use and promotion of safe sexual practice among MSM is the need of the hour.
  3,775 388 2
VIEW POINT
Training in clinical research in India: Potential and challenges
Sanjay P Zodpey, Himanshu N Negandhi
July-September 2009, 34(3):173-174
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.55267  PMID:20049290
  3,449 680 5
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Enteric pathogens in HIV/ AIDS from a tertiary care hospital
Beena Uppal, Bineeta Kashyap, Preena Bhalla
July-September 2009, 34(3):237-242
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.55291  PMID:20049303
Background: Patterns of enteric infections in HIV in developing countries may differ in several important ways from developed countries, the knowledge of which can often guide therapy when resource limitations hamper the exact diagnosis of the etiological agent in HIV-associated diarrhea. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to define and compare the microbial etiologies of diarrhea in HIV-1 infected and non infected patients and in HIV infected non diarrheal patients. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted between April 2007 and July 2007 at the Department of Microbiology, Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi. Stool samples from 50 HIV seropositive cases with diarrhea (study group), 50 HIV seropositive cases without diarrhea (control group I), and 50 HIV seronegative cases with diarrhea (control group II) were examined. After the diagnosis of HIV infection was made, routine parasitological and bacteriological detection was done. An ELISA was used for the detection of Clostridium difficile toxin and Cryptosporidium antigen in stool samples. Results: The overall prevalence of enteric parasitosis in the study group was 20% and the bacteria identified were Escherischia coli in 24% of the case, Clostridium difficile in 10% of the cases, Salmonella species and Vibrio cholerae in 4% of the cases, and Shigella species in 2% of the cases. Candida species was identified in 36% of the cases. Conclusions: Identification of the etiological agent of diarrhea in a patient with AIDS is very important as it can help in the institution of appropriate therapy and the reduction of morbidity and mortality in these patients.
  3,664 416 10
Profile of clients tested HIV positive in a voluntary counseling and testing center of a district hospital, Udupi
Megha Gupta
July-September 2009, 34(3):223-226
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.55288  PMID:20049300
  3,119 363 9
SHORT ARTICLES
A program on prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV at government hospital, Tiruchengode taluk, Namakkal district
Srijayanth Parameshwari, Mini S Jacob, JJ Vijayakumari, Diana Shalini, Mary K Sushi, MR Sivakumar
July-September 2009, 34(3):261-263
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.55298  PMID:20049310
  3,102 324 7
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
An epidemiological study of filariasis in a village of district Datia, MP
Ashok Mishra, Rahul Singh Bhadoriya
July-September 2009, 34(3):202-205
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.55284  PMID:20049296
Background: District Datia has been known to be endemic for filariasis. A number of cases have been reported in recent past. The present study was an epidemiological investigation carried out in village Barganya, Datia in the month of Sept 2004. Aims and Objectives: The objectives of this study were to confirm the epidemic in village Barganya and to study the causes of the present epidemic. Materials and Methods: The study was a cross sectional study carried out through house to house survey, covering a population of 1512. Result: A total of 78 clinically confirmed cases were reported. The study calculated a microfilarial rate of 6.9 % and 1.65% in males and females respectively. The microfilarial density among confirmed cases ranged from 3.1 to 10.6 per 20 cmm. Conclusion: The study concluded that majority of the cases were males who worked in open field and there was a lack of proper management of these cases at village level.
  2,888 327 1
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Future of community medicine in India
Gulrez Shah Azhar, Anwar Zafar Jilani
July-September 2009, 34(3):266-267
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.55301  PMID:20049313
  2,735 365 2
SHORT ARTICLES
Role of intensive training in strengthening the skills of HIV counselors for imparting quality ICTC services
D Dhadwal, AK Bhardwaj, AK Gupta, S Sharma, A Parashar, Anita Thakur, A Mahajan, V Chander, A Sood
July-September 2009, 34(3):252-254
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.55295  PMID:20049307
  2,286 198 1
The culture of bottle-feeding
Vivek Lal, Sanjay K Rai
July-September 2009, 34(3):247-248
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.55293  PMID:20049305
  2,147 287 2
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Family planning prevalence among postpartum mothers attending child welfare clinics - A Sri Lankan experience
Suneth B Agampodi, Thilini C Agampodi, Pushpika Chandrasekara
July-September 2009, 34(3):265-266
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.55300  PMID:20049312
  2,069 264 1
Prevalence of hepatitis C virus in Aligarh: A seven year experience
Farhan Asif Siddiqui, Kafil Akhtar, Rana K Sherwani, Khaliqur Rehman, Feroz Alam, Athar Ansari
July-September 2009, 34(3):264-265
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.55299  PMID:20049311
  2,138 193 3
WHO indicators for valid assessment of iodine deficiency disorders
Umesh Kapil
July-September 2009, 34(3):268-268
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.55303  PMID:20049315
  1,666 244 -
SHORT ARTICLES
Treatment seeking pattern among parents of children with locomotor disablity
Ananya Ray Laskar, VK Gupta, MM Singh, Dharmendra Kumar, GK Ingle
July-September 2009, 34(3):258-260
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.55297  PMID:20049309
  1,743 164 -
BOOK REVIEW
Epidemiology for undergraduates
Sanjay Zodpey
July-September 2009, 34(3):269-269
  1,356 251 -
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Biased goiter prevalence estimate
MB Soudarssanane, P Punithakumary
July-September 2009, 34(3):267-267
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.55302  PMID:20049314
  1,234 129 -
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  2007 - Indian Journal of Community Medicine | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
  Online since 15th September, 2007