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   2005| July-September  | Volume 30 | Issue 3  
    Online since August 7, 2009

 
 
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ARTICLES
Social Audits for Community Action: A tool to Initiate Community Action for Reducing Child Mortality
D Nandan, SK Misra, M Jain, D Singh, M Verma, V Sethi
July-September 2005, 30(3):78-80
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.42853  
Research question : (i) What is the community's perception (assessment & analysis) of causes underlying neonatal, infant and under five deaths? (ii) What action does the community take thereafter? Objectives : To stimulate the community to assess and analyze the causes and underlying social delays responsible for neonatal, infant and under five deaths in their villages and subsequently take collective action to prevent these deaths in future using Social Audits for Community Action (SACA). Design : Retrospective Participatory study. Setting : Rural community development blocks, district Agra, Uttar Pradesh. Material and Methods : SACA were conducted in a total of 152 villages of Fathehpur Sikri and Bichpuri blocks of district Agra, U.P. One SACA was conducted in each of the 211 anganwadi catchment areas, wherein 10-15 women from different socio­clusters of the community participated in a participatory discussion on issues pertaining to number of births and deaths of children less than five years of age in the last one-year. Results : 7656 live births and 749 under-five deaths were reported during the year 2002. The neonatal, infant and under-five mortality rate was 39.4, 73.5 and 85 per 1,000 live births respectively. Hypothermia, pneumonia, birth asphyxia, prematurity and low birth weight emerged as major causes of neonatal deaths. Majority of deaths of infants and children 1-5 years of age were found to have occurred due to severe malnutrition and diarrhoea. The community realized that majority of deaths occurred because of the delay in recognition of the seriousness of problem, delay in taking decision to seek appropriate care and delay in arranging transport/money. Subsequently, behaviour change communication strategies were re-defined to help community assess signs of illness and take preparedness measures to prevent child deaths in future. Conclusion : Strategies like dialoguing with the community using social audits for community action is a more useful and cost effective approach for initiating behaviour change at community level.
  7 2,256 229
EDITORIAL
Zinc Deficiency: Public Health Perspective
Arun Kumar Aggarwal
July-September 2005, 30(3):73-74
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.42851  
  5 2,494 202
ARTICLES
Knowledge, Attitude, Behavior and Practice Study on Dog-Bites and Its Management in the Context of Prevention of Rabies in a Rural Community of Gujarat
US Singh, SK Choudhary
July-September 2005, 30(3):81-83
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.42854  
Research question : What is the level of general awareness and knowledge of people about dog bites and its first aid measure with anti-rabies vaccines? Objectives : 1) To know the general awareness pertaining to rabies in rural community. 2) To study the knowledge of people about dog-bites. 3) To ascertain the first aid measures adopted by people after dog bite. 4) To study the awareness of people regarding anti rabies vaccines & health services utilization. 5) To know the opinion regarding control of dog population. 6) To make recommendations based on study findings. Methodology : Study design : cross sectional study. 2) Setting : village surrounding the PSMC, Anand. 3) Participants : total 225 families were contacted in nine villages with 25 families per village. Results : All of the individuals were aware about rabies and 98.6% knew about its transmission by dog bite. Only 31.1% would like to apply first aid measure and 36.4% will visit to doctor and rest either do nothing or adopt some religious practices to prevent the development of rabies. 86.6% of individuals were aware about anti-rabies vaccine and 24.4% knew that pet dogs need vaccine against rabies. Statistical analysis : The data was analyzed by using 'Epi-info' package.
  3 10,609 600
Prevalence and Risk Factors of Hypertension in Adults in an Urban Slum, Tirupati, A.P.
SS Reddy, GR Prabhu
July-September 2005, 30(3):84-86
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.42855  
Research question : What is the prevalence of hypertension and its risk factors among adults aged 20-60 years residing years residing in an urban slum area of Tirupati town, A.P.? Objective : To study the prevalence of hypertension and its risk factors as well as its extent of diagnosis and management among adults aged 20-60 years residing in an urban slum area of Tirupati. Study design : Cross sectional. Study setting : Channa Reddy Colony (Urban slum area) in Tirupati town, A.P. Study subjects : 1000 adults in the age group of 20-60 years (Males-500; Females-500) residing in an urban slum area of Tirupati town, A.P. Study variables : Age, sex, occupation, family history of hypertension, history of cerebrovascular/cardiovascular events, diabetes mellitus, saturated fat intake, intake of excess salt, smoking, alcohol intake and regular physical exercise. Outcome Variables : Number of hypertensives and mean blood pressure level estimations. Statistical analysis : Proportions, Chi­-square tests, 'F' ratios, 't' tests, Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results : The overall prevalence of hypertension was found to be 8.6%. Out of the 86 hypertensives, 72 (83.7%) were aware of their hypertension; all of those aware were under treatment; among the treated, only 30 (41.7%) had satisfactory control of their hypertension. Higher prevalence of hypertension was found with history of cerbrovascular/cardiovascular events (50.0%), diabetes mellitus (33.3%), family history of hypertension (23.3%), smoking (22.4%), age more than 50 years (22.2%), alcohol intake (20.0%), lack of physical exercise (15.8%), B.M.I.>25 (14.9%), male sex (9.6), non-vegetarian diet (8.8%) and saturated fat intake (8.8%). The mean systolic as well as diastolic blood pressures were found to be higher among men, higher age groups, and in business occupation of the respondents. Conclusions : Despite treatment, most of the hypertensives had not achieved satisfactory control of blood pressure. Health education of the public is needed to control the various risk factors of hypertension.
  2 6,995 680
ARTICLE
Assessing Burden of Rabies in India : WHO Sponsored National Multicentric Rabies Survey, 2003
MK Sudarshan
July-September 2005, 30(3):100-101
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.42864  
  1 3,675 293
ARTICLES
A Study of Surrogate Parameters of Birth Weight
YR Kadam, P Somaiya, SV Kakade
July-September 2005, 30(3):89-91
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.42857  
Research question : Which anthropometric parameter is correlating highly with birth weight? Can we use this parameter as a screening test for predicting birth weight? What is their cut-off value? Hypothesis: Various anthropometric parameters of newborn correlate each other positively. Objective : To find out the most effective anthropometric parameter in the newborn to assess birth weight so that newborn with LBW can be identified.. Study design: Hospital based cross-sectional study. Participants : Newborn babies born in KIMS, Karad. Results : Relatively highest correlation was observed between birth weight & thigh circumfirence (T.C.) (r = 0.8637) & next with chest circumfirence (C.C.). (r = 0.8247) Cut-off values of T.C. & C.C. had better sensitivity, specificity & predictive value for identifying LBW babies. Conclusion : T.C. is the best effective parameter to predict birth weight. Next to it is C.C.
  1 2,354 162
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Profile of Fireworks Related Ocular Injuries (FROI) from Western India
S Barhanpurkar, P Kumar, P Kapadia
July-September 2005, 30(3):98-99
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.42862  
  1 1,119 65
ARTICLE
Evaluation of Pulse Polio and Routine Immunization Coverage in the Urban and Rural Population of Ludhiana District
S Singh, A Benjamin, P Panda, AS Bhatia
July-September 2005, 30(3):97-97
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.42861  
  - 1,213 217
ARTICLES
Determinants of Reasons of School Drop-outs Amongst Dwellers of an Urban Slum of Delhi
A Khokhar, S Garg, N Bharti
July-September 2005, 30(3):92-93
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.42858  
  - 3,861 194
Knowledge and Practice among General Practitioners of Jamnagar city Regarding Animal Bite
S Bhalla, JP Mehta, A Singh
July-September 2005, 30(3):94-96
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.42859  
  - 2,023 229
A Comparative Study on Working Housemaids and a Control Group
SD Gupta, S Mitra, P Chatterjee
July-September 2005, 30(3):87-88
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.42856  
Objective : To study the health status of paid housemaids within the age range of 15-55 years and above, in the study area. To compare the health status, morbidity pattern and some health related factors like contraceptive practices, between the working and non-working women of the same age-range, neighbourhood and socio-economic status and to identify any difference if existing between the two groups. To find out whether there is any specific health risk for the working women, related to their economic activity. To provide recommendations for specific conditions as observed. Study design : Cross sectional study. Method : Interview, physical examination. Setting : Slum settlement adjacent to Hooghly Station area, West Bengal. Participants : Women in the slum area, working in different houses of the neighbourhood as housemaids, constitute the study group. Same number of nonworking women from the same slum area, of similar age-range and socio-economic conditions were taken as controls. Results : The women of both the study and the control group live in appalling condition in small earthen huts with thatched roof. There is a gross lack of clean drinking water and sanitary facilities, for both the groups. A high prevalence of anaemia was found among both the working and non-working women under study. The working women are consistently found to have higher number of children than the non-working women, which may be a reason for their economic activity. The working women are also found to have their first childbirth at a relatively later age. Regarding contraceptive practices, most of the working women are found to accept the permanent method, whereas the non-working women under study have mostly opted for the temporary methods, specially the contraceptive.
  - 2,253 152
BOOK REVIEW
Book Review
Arun Kumar Aggarwal
July-September 2005, 30(3):102-102
  - 736 55
CONTINUING MEDICAL EDUCATION
Mainstreaming Gender in Health
Manmeet Kaur
July-September 2005, 30(3):75-77
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.42852  
  - 1,945 184
LETTER TO EDITOR
Changing Scenario of Child Health due to Pulse Polio Immunisation Campaigns
Umesh Kapil
July-September 2005, 30(3):96-96
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.42860  
  - 1,017 80
LETTERS TO EDITOR
"Family Health Study : Core of Public Health Practice"
Anju Bala, Arun Kumar Aggarwal
July-September 2005, 30(3):99-99
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.42863  
  - 1,728 126
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