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   1997| April-June  | Volume 22 | Issue 2  
    Online since July 17, 2009

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Nutrition Status Of Children (1-6 Years) In Slums Of Ghaziabad City
S.K Garg, J.V Singh, M Bhatnagar, H Chopra
April-June 1997, 22(2):70-73
Research question : What are the nutritional problems of pre- school children in slums? Objectives: (i) To assess the nutritional status of the children . (ii) To find out the nutritional deficiency disorders in them (iii) To study their dietary intake. Study design: Cross- sectional. Setting : Slums of Ghaziabad city. Participants :771 children (1-6 years). Study Variables : Age, sex, caste, ICDS beneficiary status, weight, nutritional deficiency disorders, dietary intake and supplementary nutrition. Statistical analysis : Simple proportions and Chi- square test. Results : A majority (58.2 %) of children were having under nutrition of varying grades irrespective of their sex and caste but influenced by their age and ICDS beneficiary status. Anaemia, xerophthalmia and goitre were present in 14.7%, 1.6% and 0.6 % children respectively. Average daily dietary intake of energy & nutrients were lower than the recommended daily allowances (RDA). Conclusion: Regular nutritional supplementation along with adequate nutrition education would reduce the nutritional deficiency disorders among children.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
  1,484 198 -
Drug Inventory Control As A Method Of Teaching Health Economics -A Six Stage Lecture Discussion
M.B Soudarssanane
April-June 1997, 22(2):63-69
Research question: Can drug inventory control be used as a method of teaching health economics to undergraduate medical students? Objectives: 1. To use drug inventory control method for highlighting the concept of cost – analysis with cost – effectiveness and 2. Preparing a list of the type and quantity of essential drugs at the health center level given the morbidity pattern and population data. Study design: Lecture- discussion. Setting: Health centre. Participants: 4 batches of final year MBBS students. Study variables: Drug inventory at health centre level, cost of individual items, cost – effectiveness of storing individual items. Outcome variables: ABC and VED analysis of items required at health centre level. Observations: The students appreciated that in addition to the information on expenditure, the implication of ABC analysis was to identify ‘fast moving’ and ‘slow moving’ drug items. They also observed that the process might be useful in limiting the number and quality of drugs. Regarding VED analysis, they understood its necessity for information on the nature of drugs that were to be maintained in the stock at any given point of time, which in turn would make it possible to screen out unwanted items and the saving might be utilized in procuring useful and scientific drug combinations. The topic of Health Economics was taught to four batches of medical students at JIPMER (as part of the overall topic of Health Management). Data from an actual study of Drug Inventory Control in the Health Centers of JIPMER, using the ABC and VED techniques, was used in the lecture discussion. Individual handouts of the findings of the study were provided to the students of facilitate the discussion. The Drug Inventory Control Method was used to highlight the concepts of cost analysis, cost- effectiveness and the possibility of preparing a list of the type and quantity of essential drugs at the Health Centre level given the morbidity pattern and population data. Evaluation of the lecture discussion was done using pre and post tests and general feedback from the students. Details of the discussion, procedures and suggestions by the students are presented.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
  1,482 108 -
Some Observations On The Catering Services In The Indian Railways
R.K Bansal, V Sharma
April-June 1997, 22(2):82-84
Research question: How well does the food hygiene add safety practices of the railway dining car compare with the model regulations for food safety? Objectives: To observe and analyse the catering services of the dining cars and to correlate it to the hazards that may accrue with the consumption of contaminated food. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: An administrative zone of the Indian Railways. Participants: Two Railways dining cars. Study Variables: Dining car infrastructure, food preparation and catering, food handler’s hygiene and health. Outcome Variables: Overall quality of catering services. Results: The infrastructure of the railway dining cars, the hygienic practices observed by the food handlers and the entire catering process from storage of the raw food articles onwards till the consumption of the food by the passengers was unsatisfactory and fraught with health hazards. Almost all the model regulations for food safety had been flouted. Conclusion: There seemed to be no detailed ‘modus operandi’ for the monitoring and surveillance of the catering operations of the dining cars, which were potentially conducive to the transmission of food – borne infections.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
  1,140 84 -
Role Of Polio Sena And Awareness Of Pulse Polio Immunization
D.K Taneja, Pankaj Bhatnagar, S.K Bhal
April-June 1997, 22(2):47-49
Research: 1. Can the student volunteers from schools be an important resource in IEC and social mobilisation for pulse polio programme? 2. What is the level of awareness regarding pulse polio among the households? Objectives: 1. To assess awareness among households about PPI. 2. To evaluate role of Polio Sena, besides other sources in IEC for PPI campaign. Study design: Intervention Setting: National Capital Territory of Delhi. Intervention: For the purpose of IEC and social mobilisation, an innovative scheme of involving school children from class 6th to 12th was launched in the Pulse Polio Immunization (PPI) campaign of 1995 – 96 held in Delhi. This student volunteer force was named ‘Polio Sena’ and the volunteers were assigned specific tasks. Participants: Households with a child under the age of three years. Statistical analysis: Proportions. Results: High level of awareness about PPI campaign was found. Majority were aware about the age group of eligible children, the dates and number of PPI doses to be given. Achievements of ‘Polio Sena’ were significant. 24.9% of house - holds had received information about PPI from school children, which was maximum among interpersonal sources of communication. Television was the commonest medium of information. Conclusion: Polio sena was an important source of IEC and social mobilisation for PPI.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
  930 104 -
A Study Of Early Neonatal Morbidity
Kamaljit Singh, A.S Sekhon, Jagjit Singh
April-June 1997, 22(2):58-62
Research question: What is the pattern of early neonatal morbidity in hospital born babies? Objectives: i) To study the pattern of early neonatal morbidity. ii) To identify the contributory factors. Study design: Cross- sectional. Settings: Rajendra Hospital attached to Government Medical College, Patiala. Participants: New – borns and their mothers. Study Variables: Prenatal care, maternal diseases during pregnancy, maternal haemoglobin level, maternal nutrition. Outcome variables: Morbidity rates. Low birth weight, Birth asphyxia, Neonatal infections, Birth trauma and Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS) . Statistical analysis: Proportions and X2 – test. Results: The study revealed that low birth weight (20%) and birth asphyxia (20%) were the common morbidity conditions followed by neonatal infections, birth trauma and respiratory distress syndrome. Early neonatal morbidity was less in babies of mothers who had received adequate prenatal care. Among the maternal diseases, antepartum haemorrhage and anemia contributed for low birth weight and birth asphyxia, Morbidity was comparatively more among babies of undernourished mothers.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
  859 48 -
Chewing Habits Among Rural Women In Pondicherry
M Jagadeesan, S.B Rotti, M Danabalan, K.A Narayan
April-June 1997, 22(2):74-81
Research question: 1. What is the prevalence of chewing habits among rural women? 2. What are the factors associated with their use? Objectives: To find out the prevalence of chewing habits and correlates of chewing habits. Design: Cross- sectional descriptive study. Participants: Females aged 15 years and above. Study variables: Age, educational status, marital status, occupation, income, type of family, age of starting habitual chewing persons influencing chewing habits and reasons for continuing the habit. Outcome variable : Chewing habits. Statistical analysis: Chi- square test, Analysis of variance. Odds ratio and Logistic regression. Results: The prevalence of chewing betel quid was 24.6% betel quid with tobacco 13.7% and betel nut 0.2%. Mean age of starting betel quid was 22.7 years and betel quid with tobacco, 16.5 years. Friends were the most influencing persons of starting the habit. The most common reasons for continuing were craving for the substances. There was direct relationship of chewing habits with age and inverse relationship with educational status. The chewing habits were more prevalent among married women and women engaged as agricultural labourers. Conclusion: Chewing betel quid with or without tobacco is a common practice among rural women. It is influenced by socio- cultural factors.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
  850 49 -
Chronic Malnutrition Among Infants of Varanasi
S Nanda, C.P Mishra, A Shukla
April-June 1997, 22(2):85-88
Research question: What is the nutritional status of infants in Varanasi? Objectives: To find out the magnitude of PEM among infants of Varanasi district. Study design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Urban slum and rural areas. Participants: 360 infants. Study variables: Age, height (length), weight. Outcome variables: Protein Energy Malnutrition. Statistical analysis: Simple proportions; Chi- square test. Results: As per the height for age criteria; only 10.56% of infants were stunted (<90% of reference standard) and according to Seoane Latham classification; 44.96%, 6.05% and 4.03% were suffering from acute malnutrition and nutritional dwarfing respectively (90% of reference standard as entry point)
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
  730 75 -
Evaluation Of Algorithms Of Anti- HIV Antibody Tests
R.S Paranjape, S.S Kulkarni, Sumit Chanda, S.M Mehendale, S.S Jawadekar, A.K Pratinidhi, J.J Rodrigues
April-June 1997, 22(2):54-57
Research question: Can alternate algorithms be used in place of conventional algorithm for epidemiological studies of HIV infection with less expenses? Objective: To compare the results of HIV sero- prevalence as determined by test algorithms combining three kits with conventional test algorithm. Study design: Cross – sectional. Participants: 282 truck drivers. Statistical analysis: Sensitivity and specificity analysis and predictive values. Results: Three different algorithms that do not include Western Blot (WB) were compared with the conventional algorithm, in a truck driver population with 5.6% prevalence of HIV –I infection. Algorithms with one EIA (Genetic Systems or Biotest) and a rapid test (immunocomb) or with two EIAs showed 100% positive predictive value in relation to the conventional algorithm. Using an algorithm with EIA as screening test and a rapid test as a confirmatory test was 50 to 70% less expensive than the conventional algorithm per positive scrum sample. These algorithms obviate the interpretation of indeterminate results and also give differential diagnosis of HIV-2 infection. Alternate algorithms are ideally suited for community based control programme in developing countries. Application of these algorithms in population with low prevalence should also be studied in order to evaluate universal applicability.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
  681 54 -
Mortality Trends In Chandigarh (U.T)
H.M Swami, S.P.S Bhatia, Kamaljit Singh
April-June 1997, 22(2):50-53
Research question : With what causes people are dying in U.T. of Chandigarh? Objective: To analyse the causes of deaths that occurred in the years 1983and 1992. Study design: Record verification Setting: Urban, rural and slum areas Study Variable : Age, sex, residence, cause of death. Statistical analysis : Proportions Results : The death statistics of Chandigarh was comparable with that of the developed countries. The mortality due to infections and parasitic diseases had decreased from 18.7% to 12.3% in a decade whereas mortality from circulatory system diseases had increased from 18.1% to 31.2% in the same period.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available   
  591 33 -
A Turning Point In National Family Welfare Programme Moving To Target Free Reproductive & Child Health Approach
Sunder Lal
April-June 1997, 22(2):43-46
Full text not available   
  553 54 -
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  2007 - Indian Journal of Community Medicine | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
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