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   1995| January-December  | Volume 20 | Issue 2  
    Online since July 17, 2009

 
 
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Social Problems Of Aged In A Rural Population
Charan Singh, J.S Mathur, V.N Mishra, J.V Singh, R.B Singh, B.S Garg, Ashok Kumar
January-December 1995, 20(2):24-27
Research Question: What are the social problems of aged persons in a rural population? Objectives: i) To study social problems of aged. ii) To identify measures to eliminate them. Study design: Cross- sectional. Setting: Rural areas of Machhra Rural Health & Training Centre attached with Deptt. of SPM, Medical College, Meerut. Participants: Population above 60 years of age. Sample Size: 1000 households from 5 villages, which had 464 participants. Study Variables: Chi- square test. Results: In all, 259 (55.8%) aged persons were engaged in productive work while 205 (44.2%) were not doing any productive work. Of 376 aged persons living in joint families, 207 (55%) were being respected, 71(18.9%) were indifferently treated and 98 (26.1%) were being neglected by family members. Recommendations: It is a strong case for proper planning to improve the lot of old age population especially for their social problems at the earliest.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  813 238 -
An Epidemiological Survey Of Diarrhoea Among Children In The Karnataka Region of Kaveri Basin
M.K Sudarshan, B.G Parasuramalu
January-December 1995, 20(2):41-45
Research Question: Whether the source of drinking water influences the occurrence of diarrhoea in under fives? Objectives: i) To know the incidence of morbidity and mortality due to diarrhoea. ii) To identify the relationship of occurrence of diarrhoea with source of drinking water. iii) To study the treatment practices in diarrhoea. Study Design: Cross sectional. Participants: 7141 under five children. Setting: Rural and Urban clusters. Analysis: Simple proportions. Results: Nearly 7% of children experienced diarrhoea in the past two weeks and 4% had an attack of diarrhoea in the last 24 hours. Incidence of diarrhoea was significantly higher amongst 1-3 years male children. The source of drinking water per se did not influence the incidence of diarrhoea. Low (12.7%) ORS use rare was reported 31% of mothers stopped breast-feeding and 15% of mothers stopped oral fluid during diarrhoea. The overall under five-mortality rate in the area was 6.5 per 1000 children and of these one third deaths could be attributed to diarrhoea.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  770 257 -
Acute Respiratory Infections In Underfives : Experience At Comprehensive Rural Health Services Project Hospital. Ballabgarh
V.P Reddaiah, S.K Kapoor
January-December 1995, 20(2):13-18
Research Question: What are the symptoms and signs with which under-fives with acute respiratory infections are admitted to a rural hospital? Objectives: i) To analyse the symptoms, signs and diagnosis of Acute Respiratory Infections in under-fives. ii) To compare the experience with WHO guidelines. Design: Retrospective analysis of under-five patients admitted with ARI. Setting: Comprehensive Rural Health Services Project Hospital, Ballabgarh. Participants; Under-fives admitted with ARI. Outcome: Signs, symptoms, diagnosis of ARI. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive analysis of findings. Results: 73.6% admitted were males, 63.2% were infants. The most commonly complained symptoms at the time of admission were fever (69.6%), Cough (63.2%), breathlessness (61.6%) inability to feed (19.2) and diarrhoea (19.2%). 76.0% had crepitations, 26.4% had chest in drawing, 23.2% had ronchi, and 14.4%had respiratory distress. Only 33.3% had respiratory rate more than 60 per minute among children less than 2 months old, 56.9% had respiratory rate more than 50 per minute among children 2-12 month old. 54.3% had respiratory rate more than 40 per minute among 12 months to 5 years of age. 76% had pneumonias. The case fatality rate (CFR) was 12.8% and most of the deaths occurred within 24 hours of arrival. The C.F.R was more in females and among young infants. Conclusion: Fever should be included in the lead symptoms of ARI along with cough and breathlessness. There is a need for looking at Respiratory rate for recognition of Pneumonias.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  561 194 -
Truck Drivers And Risk Of STDs Including HIV
R.K Bansal
January-December 1995, 20(2):28-30
Research Question: Whether long distance truck drivers are at a higher risk of contracting and transmitting STDs including HIV? Objectives: i) To study the degree of knowledge of HIV and AIDS among long- distance truck drivers. ii) Assess their sexual behaviour including condom use. iii) Explore their prevailing social influences and substance abuse patterns. iv) Explore their treatment seeking bahaviour as regards STDs. v) Deduce their risk of contracting and transmitting STDs including HIV. Study Design: Cross- sectional interview. Setting: Transport Nagar, Indore (M.P) Participants: 210 senior drivers (First drivers) and 210 junior drivers (Second drivers). Study Variables: Extra-Marital sexual intercourse, condom usage, past and present history of STDs, treatment and counseling, substance abuse, social – cultural milieu. Outcome Variables: Risk of contraction of STDs. Statistical Analysis: Univariate analysis. Results: 94% of the drivers were totally ignorant about AIDS. 82.9% and 43.8 % of the senior and junior drivers had a history of extra- marital sex and of these only 2 regularly used condoms. 13.8% and 3.3 % of the senior and junior drivers had a past or present history suggestive of STD infection. Alcohol and Opium were regularly used by them. Conclusion: The studied drivers are at a high risk of contracting and transmitting STDs including HIV.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  630 120 -
First Year Medical Students' AIDS Knowledge and Attitude
Edwin R Amalraj, Nirmala Chandrasekaran, Sunithi Solomon, Raja P Sumbandam
January-December 1995, 20(2):36-40
Research Question: What is the level of knowledge, sexual practices and attitude of medical students towards AIDS/ HIV. Objective: To assess the knowledge, sexual practices and attitudes of medical students in relation to HIV/AIDS. Study Design: Cross- sectional. Participants: 409 first year medical students. Study variables: Sex knowledge, sexual practices, Attitudes, Risk perception. Results: 92% of the students had heard about AIDS predominantly through mass media. Many students had misconception about transmission of HIV infection should not be allowed to work in the clinic or hospital. 36% of male and 9% of female students admitted indulging in safe sexual practices mostly with their friends.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  594 149 -
Role Of Family Planning Practices In The Control And Prevention of Uterine Cervical Cancer- A Multivariate Analysis
S Sharma, A Juneja, A Sehgal, S Sardana, V Singh, N.S Murthy, R.K Tuteja
January-December 1995, 20(2):31-35
Research Question: Does acceptance of family planning reduce the risk of uterine cervical cancer? Objective: To study the association between usage of contraceptive methods and cervical carcinogenesis. Study design: Case control study. Settings: Urban Area – Hospital Based. Participants: 160 women having different degrees of dysplasia and 173 women having normal pap smears. Statistical Analysis: Multivariate Analysis. Results: None of the three widely prevalent Family Planning practices viz. IUD condoms and tubectomy turned out to be significant in the development of dysplasia, however, age at consummation of marriage before 18 years and illiteracy were significant. Use of IUD offered protection against carcinoma in situ (CIS) and disease of invasive nature. Non- users of condoms were also at risk marginally failing to attain statistical significance.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  563 111 -
Tobacco : A Risk Factor In Causation Of Rural Cancer
S Ghosh, H.S Shukla, S.C Mohapatra, J.N.P Gupta
January-December 1995, 20(2):19-23
Research Question: What is the degree of risk involved with tobacco chewing in relation to oral cancer? Objective: To study the degree of risk involved with tobacco chewing in relation to oral cancer. Study Design: Case- control study for a period of 1 year. Setting: Hospital based. Participants: Oral cancer patients and controls from the attendants of the patients. Sample size: 52 patients attending Surgical OPD in Sir Sunder Lal Hospital, Institute of Medical Sciences, BHU, Varanasi along with equal number of controls. Study Variables: Age, Sex, Religion, Areas Literacy, Occupation, Oral hygiene Index, Tobacco Habits. Results: The close association of tobacco addiction in all forms had an odds ratio of 5.33 as compared to mixed chewing (O.R = 4.35) and exclusive chewing (O.R= 4.05). Old age male people were the frequent sufferers. The mutation of risk factors was identified to be the earlier age of onset while the duration of frequency of chewing and night quid keeping enhanced the risk to a greater extent (p<0.001).
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  495 172 -
Assessment By Multiple Choice Questions
Ashok Rattan, Ramesh Kumar
January-December 1995, 20(2):46-48
Full text not available  [PDF]
  351 213 -
Cost Of Treatment In Fatal Diarrhoea In Under Fives
Paramjeet Kaur
January-December 1995, 20(2):9-12
Research Question: How much is the cost borne out by the family for treatment of fatal diarrhoea in rural settings? Objective: To assess the money spent in the treatment of fatal diarrhoea in under fives. Study design: Cross- sectional. Settings: Rural areas. Sample size: 95 under five deaths amongst 2094 under five children. Participants: Parents of deceased children. Study variables: Causes of deaths, type of treatment facility, cost treatment. Analysis: Simple proportions. Results: It was observed that the cost of treatment of fatal diarrhoea went up when the physicians were changed frequently during the course of treatment and also when a practitioner from outside village was consulted.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  420 84 -
Training Process In Health System For Health Workers & Supervisors
Sunder Lal
January-December 1995, 20(2):3-8
Full text not available  [PDF]
  309 119 -
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  2007 - Indian Journal of Community Medicine | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
  Online since 15th September, 2007