Indian Journal of Community Medicine

: 2005  |  Volume : 30  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 98--99

Profile of Fireworks Related Ocular Injuries (FROI) from Western India

S Barhanpurkar, P Kumar, P Kapadia 
 Upgraded Department Ophthalmology & Department of Community Medicine, Govt. Medical College & New Civil Hospital, Surat 395 001., India

Correspondence Address:
P Kumar
Upgraded Department Ophthalmology & Department of Community Medicine, Govt. Medical College & New Civil Hospital, Surat 395 001.

How to cite this article:
Barhanpurkar S, Kumar P, Kapadia P. Profile of Fireworks Related Ocular Injuries (FROI) from Western India.Indian J Community Med 2005;30:98-99

How to cite this URL:
Barhanpurkar S, Kumar P, Kapadia P. Profile of Fireworks Related Ocular Injuries (FROI) from Western India. Indian J Community Med [serial online] 2005 [cited 2022 May 25 ];30:98-99
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Full Text

The festivity of Diwali is invariably vitiated due to the spurious quality fireworks and their negligent handling leading to fireworks related ocular injuries (FROI). Studies conducted in our country either do not deal with relevant factors adquately or have limited validity due to small sample. The fact that FROI are easier to prevent than to manage, prompted us to study the pattern, epidemiological factors and treatment seeking behavior for such injuries. We conducted this study with the objectives to (1) generate epidemiological and clinical profile of FROI cases and (2) assess the existing treatment seeking behavior of these cases.

This study was conducted at Surat, Rajkot and Vadodara during 2001 and 2002. Forty four cases reporting with FROI were included in the study. Detailed history of each case was obtained that included type of firework, mode of injury, other associated injuries etc. For children ( 2 = 37.5, df = 1, p [1] also found same more so with severe cases requiring hospitalization (60%). It emphasizes the need for some quality check for the fireworks especially bombs. Combination fireworks are dangerous [1] due to their uncertainty of time of explosion. Unsupervised ignition of fireworks by children and consequent FROI in our study was another aspect responsible for many injury cases. This aspect has been emphasized elsewhere also and must be incorporated in the IEC campaign.

The common injuries seen were corneal abrasions and foreign bodies in cornea; same were common in the study by Arya et al 2001 [1] . First aid was provided only to half of the cases.

This may have been due to the poor awareness or its non-­availability. Both facts can be incorporated in the IEC program for example, a bucket full of water should be kept ready wherever fireworks are being lit and also some broad spectrum antibiotic eye drops should always be a part of the first aid kit of every home. Delayed arrival (>6 hours) of one fourth cases of the hospital in this study is another area of intervention with IEC.

Poor quality fuse leads in fireworks [2],[4] are responsible for uncertainty of the time of ignition. This has accounted for up to one fifth of the cases in our study. Fireworks industry needs to be brought under some supervision like ISI ratings. The packaging must exhibit instructions for safe use and also for what to do as first aid measures in case of injuries. Framing the appropriate legislation and its enforcement can also be effective in this regard.


Study covers cases which reported at Ophthalmology departments of medical colleges; therefore, findings cannot be generalized on cases who may have visited private practioners/consultants. Small sample also limits the interpretation of the findings.


Authors acknowledge the contribution of Dr. Snehal Pandya (Rajkot), Dr. S.S. Gamit and Dr. H. Ahir (Vadodara) for data collection at respective centers.


1Arya SK, Malhotra S., Dhir SP, Sood S. Ocular Fireworks Injuries, Clinical Features & Visual Outcome. Indian Journal of Ophthalmology 2001; 49:189-190.
2Dhir S.P. Munjal V.P Malhotra S. Firework]s injuries of the eye-a preventable hazard. Indian Journal of Preventive and Social Medicine 2001; 32:31-34.
3Kumar P, Sharma M & Chaddha A. Epidemiological determinants of burn in pediatric and adolescent cases from a center of Western India. Burns 1994; 20:236-240.
4Mohan K, Dhir SP, Munjal V.P Jain IS. Ocular fireworks injuries in children. Afro-Asian J Ophthalmol. 1984; 2: 162­165.