HomeAboutusEditorial BoardCurrent issuearchivesSearch articlesInstructions for authorsSubscription detailsAdvertise

  Login  | Users online: 725

   Ahead of print articles    Bookmark this page Print this page Email this page Small font sizeDefault font size Increase font size  


 
 Table of Contents    
LETTER TO EDITOR  
Year : 2013  |  Volume : 38  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 185-186
 

Modified kuppuswamy's socioeconomic scale: social researcher should include updated income criteria, 2012


1 Department of Community Medicine, UCMS and GTB Hospital, Delhi, India
2 Department of Community Medicine, Pt B D Sharma PGIMS, Rohtak, India

Date of Web Publication8-Aug-2013

Correspondence Address:
Mohan Bairwa
Department of Community Medicine, UCMS and GTB Hospital, Delhi
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0970-0218.116358

Rights and Permissions

 



How to cite this article:
Bairwa M, Rajput M, Sachdeva S. Modified kuppuswamy's socioeconomic scale: social researcher should include updated income criteria, 2012. Indian J Community Med 2013;38:185-6

How to cite this URL:
Bairwa M, Rajput M, Sachdeva S. Modified kuppuswamy's socioeconomic scale: social researcher should include updated income criteria, 2012. Indian J Community Med [serial online] 2013 [cited 2021 Dec 5];38:185-6. Available from: https://www.ijcm.org.in/text.asp?2013/38/3/185/116358


Sir,

Socioeconomic status (SES) is one of the most important social determinants of health and disease, thus, widely studied constructs in the social sciences. Usually composite scales are used to measure SES, which has a combination of social and economic variables. Several ways of measuring SES have been suggested for categorizing different rural and urban populations in last decades.

The most widely used scale for urban populations is Kuppuswamy's socioeconomic scale, which was devised by Kuppuswamy in 1976. Kuppuswamy scale is a composite score of education and occupation of the head of the family along with monthly income of the family, which yields a score of 3-29. This scale classifies the study populations into high, middle, and low SES [Table 1]. [1] Usually education and occupation of head of family are not changeable with time. However, the income ranges in the scale lose their relevance following the depreciation in the value of the rupee. [2] Steady inflation, lower interest rates, and country's current account deficits are the main factors contributing to fall in the value of currency. Therefore, it is needed to update the scale regularly for socioeconomic classification of study populations. In the past, Kumar [3] had tried to update Prasad Scale's income limits using consumer price index (CPI) as a first attempt of its kind. In this letter, we attempted to link income limits of the Kuppuswamy socioeconomic scale with CPI and revised the scale. Such linking of the scale with price index not only makes it relevant and meaningful but also provides a built in opportunity for its constant updating in future.
Table 1: Kuppuswamy socioeconomic scale (Urban, 1976)(1)


Click here to view


The family income per month (in rupees) for 1976 was calculated according to base year 1960 = 100 (using the price index for 1976: 296). These price indexes entail that anything that costs Rs. 100 in 1960 would cost Rs. 296 in 1976. The price indexes were updated for 1982 and again in 2001 assuming them as base year (100). [4] The scale has been revised previously by Mishra et al., for 1998 price index, [2] Kumar et al., [5] and Patro et al. [6] Keeping the changing socioeconomic circumstances in mind, income criteria in this paper again revised using the base year of 2001 for All India CPI numbers for industrial workers on base 2001 = 100 (CPI-IW). [3] Price index for 2001 according to 1982 base (100) was 458. As per criteria of 1960 (old base), the price index for 1982 was updated at 490. Therefore, we get price index of 1976 converted to new base:

  • Price index for 1982 by 1960 base = 490
  • Price index for 1982 by 1982 base = 100
  • Price index for 1976 by 1960 base = 296
  • Price index for 1976 by 1982 base = 296 χ 490/100 = 60.408.


This means the item which costs Rs. 100 in 1982 was Rs. 60.4 in 1976. Conversion factor for the year 1982 would be 4.90 (296 χ 60.408). Conversion factor takes into account the increase in base price index for which it is calculated. Considering the new base (2001), price index for current year (2012) is used to establish new ranges of income. Updated conversion factor can be established using same exercise as follows:

  • Price index by old base (1982) for 1998 = 405
  • Price index for 2001 by new base (2001) = 100
  • Price index by new base (2001) for 1998 = 405 χ 458/100 = 88.428
  • Price index by new base (2001) for 2012 = 208.


Conversion factor for the year 2012 can be achieved by dividing the price index (2012) by 88.428. CPI-IW (base 2001 = 100) shows reference index numbers as 208 on June 2012 as per Labour Bureau, Government of India. [4] Price index was 88.42 for 1998 and 208 for 2012 so conversion factor with 2001 as new base will be 2.35 (208 χ 88.42) [Table 2]. [1],[2],[4],[5]
Table 2: Family income (Rs.) per month in the original and modified Kuppuswamy scale#


Click here to view


This revised method for SES has limitations. Educational and occupational factors need to be revised by using suitable survey methods. [2] The total family income is being used in this scale, itself is a limiting factor as it does not take into account the family size. In today's time with shrinking family size, best expressed with double income no kid syndrome; a small family with same income will enjoy an upward social mobility. However, this exercise will provide good understanding for deciding the income group in the scale considering the latest available CPI values.

The researchers need to take note of regular update of the CPI values available from Labor Bureau website before exercising socioeconomic classification of their study population in research.


   Acknowledgments Top


The authors are thankful to Sumit Chawla and Manju Pilania, Pt. B D Sharma PGIMS, Rohtak for understanding of the calculations of price indexes.

 
   References Top

1.Kuppuswamy B. Manual of Socioeconomic Status (Urban), 1 st ed. Delhi: Manasayan; 1981. p. 66-72.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.Mishra D, Singh HP. Kuppuswamy's socioeconomic status scale - A revision. Indian J Pediatr 2003;70:273-4.  Back to cited text no. 2
[PUBMED]    
3.Kumar P. Social classification - Need for constant updating. Indian J Community Med 1993;18:60-1.  Back to cited text no. 3
  Medknow Journal  
4.Labour Bureau, Ministry of Labour, Government of India. Linking factors between new series and old Series. Available from: http://labourbureau.nic.in/indexes.htm. [Last accessed on 2012 Aug 7].  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.Kumar N, Shekhar C, Kumar P, Kundu AS. Kuppuswamy's socioeconomic status scale - Updating for 2007. Indian J Pediatr 2007;74:1131-2.  Back to cited text no. 5
[PUBMED]    
6.Patro BK, Jeyashree K, Gupta PK. Kuppuswamy's socioeconomic status scale 2010 the need for periodic revision. Indian J Pediatr 2012;79:395-6.  Back to cited text no. 6
[PUBMED]    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2]


This article has been cited by
1 Risk Factors and Hazards in the Household Environment for Elevated Blood Lead Levels in Urban Preschool Children of Vellore: A Case–Control Approach in the MAL-ED Birth Cohort
Rohan Michael Ramesh, Avinash Ganesh Khiratkar, Kulandaipalayam Natarajan Sindhu, Anuradha Rose, Sushil Mathew John, Pundlik Rambhau Bhagat, Gagandeep Kang, Venkata Raghava Mohan
Indian Journal of Pediatrics. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 Catch-up and Catch-down Growth in Term Healthy Indian Infants From Birth to Two Years: A Prospective Cohort Study
Vandana Jain, Brijesh Kumar, Sapna Khatak
Indian Pediatrics. 2021; 58(4): 325
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 Quality of Sleep Predicts Prefrontal Cognitive Decline in Indian Collegiates
Anam Aseem, Pooja Bhati, Neera Chaudhry, Mohammed Ejaz Hussain
Sleep and Vigilance. 2021; 5(1): 127
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
4 An evidence-based scoring system to diagnose acute rheumatic fever with carditis in children
Rajiv Narang, Anita Saxena, Sivasubramanian Ramakrishnan, Saurabh Kumar Gupta, Rajneesh Juneja, Shyam S. Kothari
International Journal of Cardiology. 2021; 333: 146
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
5 Epidemiological and clinical profile, management and outcomes of young patients (=40 years) with acute coronary syndrome: A single tertiary care center study
Pruthvi C. Revaiah, Krishna Santosh Vemuri, Rajesh Vijayvergiya, Ajay Bahl, Ankur Gupta, Dinakar Bootla, Ganesh Kasinadhuni, Krishna Prasad Nevali, M. Palanivel Rajan, Lipi Uppal, Atit Gawalkar, Manojkumar Rohit
Indian Heart Journal. 2021; 73(3): 295
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
6 Bilingualism and Its Implications for Neuropsychological Evaluation
Avanthi Paplikar, Suvarna Alladi, Feba Varghese, Shailaja Mekala, Faheem Arshad, Meenakshi Sharma, Aralikatte Onkarappa Saroja, Gollahalli Divyaraj, Aparna Dutt, Ratnavalli Ellajosyula, Amitabha Ghosh, Gowri K Iyer, J Sunitha, Rajmohan Kandukuri, Subhash Kaul, Arfa Banu Khan, Robert Mathew, Ramshekhar Menon, Ranita Nandi, Jwala Narayanan, Ashima Nehra, M V Padma, Apoorva Pauranik, Subasree Ramakrishnan, Lekha Sarath, Urvashi Shah, Manjari Tripathi, P N Sylaja, Ravi Prasad Varma, Mansi Verma, Yeshaswini Vishwanath
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
7 Impact of Patient Counseling and Socioeconomic Factors on Initiation of Rehabilitation Program in Spinal Cord Injury Patients Presenting to a Tertiary Spine Unit in India
Siddharth Narasimhan Aiyer, Vignesh Gunasekaran, Latha Mani, Sri Vijay Anand K. S., Shanmuganathan Rajasekaran, Ajoy Prasad Shetty
Asian Spine Journal. 2021; 15(3): 357
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
8 ASSESSMENT OF GLAUCOMAAWARENESS AMONG PEOPLE ATTENDING HEALTHCARE REFERRAL CENTRE
Bhumika N Shah, Romil N Patel, Kunal G Patel
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH. 2021; : 38
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
9 Health-seeking behavior and the initial economic impact of patients with open globe injuries seeking treatment in a tertiary care center in India
MeeraLakshmi Prajna, Ankur Saxena, Ashwin Balasubramanian
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology. 2021; 69(9): 2367
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
10 Concordance of assessment of insight by different measures in obsessive-compulsive disorder: An outpatient-based study from India
Sandeep Grover, Abhishek Ghosh, Natasha Kate, Siddharth Sarkar, Subho Chakrabarti, Ajit Avasthi
Indian Journal of Psychiatry. 2021; 63(5): 439
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
11 Maternal stressful events and socioeconomic status among orofacial cleft families: A hospital-based study
MoeMyat Noe Phyu,Zayar Lin,KyawMyo Tun,ThiHa Myint Wei,KoKo Maung
Journal of Cleft Lip Palate and Craniofacial Anomalies. 2020; 7(1): 24
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
12 Sociodemographic determinants in prevalence of anemia in adolescents of rural area of Maharashtra
Ashish Varma,Jayant Vagha,Apurv Agrawal,Revat Meshram,Sachin Damke,Sumit Thakur
Journal of Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences University. 2020; 15(2): 209
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
13 An observational study on acute poisoning in a tertiary care hospital in West Bengal, India
Suparna Chatterjee,VivekKumar Verma,Avijit Hazra,Jyotirmoy Pal
Perspectives in Clinical Research. 2020; 11(2): 75
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
14 From Schools to Scans: A Neuroeducational Approach to Comorbid Math and Reading Disabilities
Jeremy G. Grant,Linda S. Siegel,Amedeo DæAngiulli
Frontiers in Public Health. 2020; 8
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
15 Impact of metformin therapy on health-related quality of life outcomes in tuberculosis patients with diabetes mellitus in India: A prospective study
Ritu Mishra,Shri Krishan,Ali Nasir Siddiqui,Prem Kapur,Khalid Umer Khayyam,Pradeep Kumar Rai,Manju Sharma
International Journal of Clinical Practice. 2020;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
16 Maternal MUAC and fetal outcome in an Indian tertiary care hospital: A prospective observational study
Donugama Vasundhara,Rajkumar Hemalatha,Saurabh Sharma,Baru Anantha Ramalaxmi,Varanasi Bhaskar,JagJeevan Babu,Radha Krishna Kankipati Vijaya,RajaSriswan Mamidi
Maternal & Child Nutrition. 2020; 16(2)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
17 The Spectrum of Congenital Central Nervous System Anomalies Among Stillborn: An Autopsy Based Study
S. P. Vinutha, D. Narayanappa, G. V. Manjunath, M. S. Sujatha, M. C. Sapna Patel, Deepa Bhat
Annals of Neurosciences. 2020; 27(3-4): 224
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
18 Surveillance of adverse drug reactions and drug–drug interactions with pediatric oncology patients in a south Indian tertiary care hospital
Bency Joseph,Julius X Scott,M G Rajanandh
Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice. 2020; 26(5): 1103
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
19 Perception and awareness of unintentional childhood injuries among primary caregivers of children in Vellore, South India: a community-based cross-sectional study using photo-elicitation method
Leeberk Raja Inbaraj,Kulandaipalayam Natarajan Sindhu,Lalmalsawmi Ralte,Basir Ahmed,Chandni Chandramouli,Elza Rebecca Kharsyntiew,Evelina Jane,Joshaphine Victoria Paripooranam,Nikhil Muduli,Padebettu Devendra Akhilesh,Prakash Joseph,Renata Nappoly,Tamma Anusha Reddy,Shantidani Minz
Injury Epidemiology. 2020; 7(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
20 Efficacy of Working Memory Training in Middle-aged Adults
Vinitha Mary George, Gagan Bajaj, Jayashree S Bhat
Communication Sciences & Disorders. 2020; 25(4): 830
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
21 Built environment correlates of overweight and obesity among adults in Chennai, India
Deepti Adlakha,Ross C. Brownson,J. Aaron Hipp
Cities & Health. 2020; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
22 The link between bipolarity and substance use: A controlled clinic based study
Anoop Krishna Gupta,Subodh B N,Abhishek Ghosh,Debasish Basu
Asian Journal of Psychiatry. 2020; 47: 101835
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
23 Out-of-pocket expenditure for administration of benzathine penicillin G injections for secondary prophylaxis in patients with rheumatic heart disease: A registry-based data from a tertiary care center in Northern India
Balaji Arvind,Anita Saxena,Dhruv S. Kazi,Ann F. Bolger
Indian Heart Journal. 2020;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
24 Impact of counseling in knowledge, attitude and practice and association of nutritional status with CD4 count and opportunistic infections of HIV patients of Udupi, India
Pratik Pokharel,Pallavi G. Shettigar
Clinical Nutrition ESPEN. 2019; 29: 154
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
25 Home-based Sensory Interventions in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Hansashree Padmanabha,Pratibha Singhi,Jitendra Kumar Sahu,Prahbhjot Malhi
The Indian Journal of Pediatrics. 2019; 86(1): 18
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
26 Direct Saliva Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay Shows Low Birth Prevalence of Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection in Urban Western India
Rajlakshmi Viswanathan,Sanjay Bafna,Ravikanth Mergu,Gururajrao Deshpande,Rashmi Gunjikar,Shivshankar Gaikwad,Jayati Mullick
The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. 2019; 38(4): e65
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
27 SLEep among diabetic patients and their GlycaEmic control (SLEDGE): A pilot observational study
Jeffrey P. Raj,Samuel G. Hansdak,Dukhabandhu Naik,Narayani V. Mahendri,Nihal Thomas
Journal of Diabetes. 2019; 11(2): 122
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
28 Epidemiological and behavioural correlates of drug-resistant tuberculosis in a Tertiary Care Centre, Delhi, India
Kevisetuo A. Dzeyie,Saurav Basu,Tanzin Dikid,Anuj K. Bhatnagar,L.S. Chauhan,J.P. Narain
Indian Journal of Tuberculosis. 2019; 66(3): 331
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
29 Periodontal predicaments and associated risk factors among patients with schizophrenia
Abhinav Singh,Bharathi M. Purohit,Pankaj Mittal
Neurology, Psychiatry and Brain Research. 2019; 32: 36
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
30 Prediction of nutritive sucking in preterm babies (<34 weeks) and preterm sucking readiness scale
Nisha Kumari,Ashish Jain,Siddarth Ramji
Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology. 2019; 5(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
31 Comparative performance assessment of composite indicators for DMFT, DMFS, FS-T and T-Health indices among a 35-44 year old urban population: A cross-sectional study
Bhumika Rathore,Anitha R. Sagarkar,Pushpanjali Krishnappa
Journal of Global Oral Health. 2019; 2: 9
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
32 Updating the Kuppuswamyæs socioeconomic status scale for the year 2019
M.A. Bashar
Indian Journal of Community and Family Medicine. 2019; 5(2): 162
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
33 Demographic and socioeconomic barriers and treatment seeking behaviors of patients with infectious keratitis requiring therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty
Hem Shah,Naveen Radhakrishnan,Shivaa Ramsewak,Stephan Chiu,Sanil Joseph,Jennifer Rose-Nussbaumer,NVenkatesh Prajna
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology. 2019; 67(10): 1593
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
34 Oral Health Behavior and Factors Influencing the Selection of Oral Hygiene Products among the Adolescent Tobacco Consumers in Jharkhand
Virendra K Prajapati
The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice. 2019; 20(10): 1200
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
35 Predictors of mortality in outborns with neonatal sepsis: A prospective observational study
RajkumarMotiram Meshram,VishalS Gajimwar,SwapnilD Bhongade
Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal. 2019; 26(4): 216
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
36 Household Food Insecurity and Mental Health Among Teenage Girls Living in Urban Slums in Varanasi, India: A Cross-Sectional Study
Divya Rani,Jitendra Singh,Dilaram Acharya,Rajan Paudel,Kwan Lee,Shri Singh
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2018; 15(8): 1585
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
37 Unintentional injuries among children aged 1–5 years: understanding the burden, risk factors and severity in urban slums of southern India
Srujan Lam Sharma,Samarasimha Reddy N,Karthikeyan Ramanujam,Mats Steffi Jennifer,Annai Gunasekaran,Anuradha Rose,Sushil Mathew John,Anuradha Bose,Venkata Raghava Mohan
Injury Epidemiology. 2018; 5(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
38 Vitamin D status in Kancheepuram District, Tamil Nadu, India
John Mechenro,Giriprasad Venugopal,M. Buvnesh Kumar,D. Balakrishnan,Balakrishnan S. Ramakrishna
BMC Public Health. 2018; 18(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
39 Prevalence and risk factors of hypertension in acclimatized lowlanders staying at high altitude for different durations
Vivek Vashishtha,Kalpana Kumari Barhwal,Vineet Kumar Malhotra,Ashish Kumar,Sunil Kumar Hota,Tsering Norboo,Om Prakash Chaurasia
Journal of Human Hypertension. 2018; 32(5): 359
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
40 Drug utilization among hypertensive patients in the outpatient department of medicine in a tertiary care hospital: A cross-sectional study
Sarika G. Paradkar,Shyamal R. Sinha
Clinical and Experimental Hypertension. 2018; 40(2): 150
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
41 Size-segregated particulate matter and its association with respiratory deposition doses among outdoor exercisers in Dhanbad City, India
Sunil Kumar Gupta,Suresh Pandian Elumalai
Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association. 2017; 67(10): 1137
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
42 “Can we walk?” Environmental supports for physical activity in India
Deepti Adlakha,J. Aaron Hipp,Ross C. Brownson,Amy A. Eyler,Carolyn K. Lesorogol,Ramesh Raghavan
Preventive Medicine. 2017; 103: S81
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
43 Direct Cost for Treating Chronic Kidney Disease at an Outpatient Setting of a Tertiary Hospital: Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Study
Rajiv Ahlawat,Pramil Tiwari,Sanjay D’Cruz
Value in Health Regional Issues. 2017; 12: 36
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
44 Kuppuswamy’s Socio-Economic Status Scale: A Revision of Occupation and Income Criteria for 2016
Mahesh R. Khairnar,Umesh Wadgave,Pranali V. Shimpi
The Indian Journal of Pediatrics. 2017; 84(1): 3
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
45 Designing and validation of a Hindi-language parent self-report developmental screening tool
Rahul Jain,Anshita Arora,Rohit Anand,Shahzadi Malhotra,Medha Mittal,Monica Juneja
Indian Pediatrics. 2017; 54(7): 550
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
46 Relation of pedometer steps count & self reported physical activity with health indices in middle aged adults
Nusrat Jahan,Shweta Shenoy
Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews. 2017; 11: S1017
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
47 Comparison of IPV to tOPV week 39 boost of primary OPV vaccination in Indian infants: an open labelled randomized controlled trial
Suman Kanungo,Deok Ryun Kim,Bisakha Haldar,Cynthia Snider,Uma Nalavade,Soon Ae Kim,Ju Yeon Park,Anuradha Sinha,Aiyel Haque Mallick,Byomkesh Manna,Dipika Sur,Ranjan Kumar Nandy,Jagadish M. Deshpande,Cecil Czerkinsky,Thomas F Wierzba,William A Petri Jr.,Mohammad Ali,Ayan Dey
Heliyon. 2017; 3(1): e00223
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
48 Intimate Partner Violence, Depression, and Quality of Life among Women Living with HIV/AIDS in a Coastal City of South India
Basavaprabhu Achchappa,Mahak Bhandary,Bhaskaran Unnikrishnan,John T. Ramapuram,Vaman Kulkarni,Satish Rao,Deepak Maadi,Anish Bhat,Shivani Priyadarshni
Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care (JIAPAC). 2017; 16(5): 455
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
49 Diabetes prevalence and its impact on health-related quality of life in tuberculosis patients
Ali Nasir Siddiqui,Khalid Umer Khayyam,Nahida Siddiqui,Rohit Sarin,Manju Sharma
Tropical Medicine & International Health. 2017; 22(11): 1394
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
50 Predictors of health related quality of life in childhood epilepsy and comparison with healthy children: findings from an Indian study
Dipika BANSAL,Chandrika AZAD,Kapil GUDALA,Anil DASARI
TURKISH JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES. 2017; 47: 490
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
51 PATTERNS OF MULTIMORBIDITY AMONG ELDERLY IN AN URBAN AREA OF NORTH INDIA
Akriti Gupta,Sangeeta Girdhar,Anurag Chaudhary,Jasneet Singh Chawla,Pushapindra Kaushal
Journal of Evolution of Medical and Dental Sciences. 2016; 5(19): 936
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
52 Impacts of TNF-LTA SNPs/Haplotypes and Lifestyle Factors on Oral Carcinoma in an Indian Population
Kapil Bandil,Pallavi Singhal,Upma Sharma,Showket Hussain,Surojit Basu,Aditya Parashari,Veena Singh,Ashok Sehgal,Animesh Shivam,Puneet Ahuja,Mausumi Bharadwaj,Basu Dev Banerjee,Ravi Mehrotra
Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy. 2016; 20(5): 469
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
53 Association of T-regulatory cells and CD23/CD21 expression with vitamin D in children with asthma
Anchoju Vijayendra Chary,Rajkumar Hemalatha,Machiraju Vasudeva Murali,Dodle Jayaprakash,Bharathraj Dinesh Kumar
Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. 2016; 116(5): 447
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
54 A study of assessment of sexual dysfunction in male subjects with opioid dependence
Nitin Aggarwal,Sushil Kherada,Suresh Gocher,Mahesh Sohu
Asian Journal of Psychiatry. 2016; 23: 17
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
55 Characteristics and outcomes of Indian children enrolled in a rheumatic heart disease registry
Anurag Mehta,Anita Saxena,Rajnish Juneja,Sivasubramanian Ramakrishnan,Saurabh Gupta,Shyam Sundar Kothari
International Journal of Cardiology. 2016; 222: 1136
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
56 Characterization of Toll-like receptor transcriptome in squamous cell carcinoma of cervix: A case–control study
Ritu Aggarwal,Sunayana Misra,Charu Guleria,Vanita Suri,Navdeep Mangat,Madhulika Sharma,Raje Nijhawan,Ranjana Minz
Gynecologic Oncology. 2015; 138(2): 358
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
57 Influence of socio-economic status on access to different components of SCI management across Indian population
H S Chhabra,A M Bhalla
Spinal Cord. 2015; 53(11): 816
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
58 Energy and protein intake during pregnancy in relation to preterm birth: A Case Control Study
Shally Awasthi,M. Chauhan,M. Pandey,S. Singh,U. Singh
Indian Pediatrics. 2015; 52(6): 489
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
59 Medical adherence and its predictors in Diabetes Mellitus patients attending government hospitals in the Indian Capital, Delhi, 2013: a cross sectional study
Saurav Basu,Megha Khobragade,Anil Kumar,D. K. Raut
International Journal of Diabetes in Developing Countries. 2015;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
60 A CLINICAL STUDY OF SELECTED PARAMETERS OF SMOKING HABIT AMONG PATIENTS ATTENDING PULMONOLOGY OPD IN KATURI MEDICAL COLLEGE HOSPITAL, GUNTUR DURING 2012 - 2014
Ramakrishna R, Jaya Bharat Reddy G
Journal of Evidence Based Medicine and Healthcare. 2015; 2(9): 1317
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
61 Prevalence and risk factors for non-carious cervical lesions in children attending special needs schools in India
Sandeep Kumar,Arunoday Kumar,Nitai Debnath,Amit Kumar,Bhumika K. Badiyani,Debashish Basak,Mohamed S. A. Ali,Mohammed B. Ismail
Journal of Oral Science. 2015; 57(1): 37
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
62 Compliance With Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in T4 Oral Cancers: Place, Person, Socioeconomic Status, or Assistance
Vijay M. Patil,Vanita Noronha,Amit Joshi,Vamshi Muddu,Sachin Dhumal,Atanu Bhattacharjee,Kumar Prabhash
Journal of Global Oncology. 2015; 1(2): 65
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
63 BEHAVIORAL PROBLEMS IN CHILDREN ATTENDING PEDIATRIC OUTPATIENT DEPARTMENT: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY
Ahalya Vedachalam,Pradeep Thilakan,Susan Solomon
Journal of Evolution of Medical and Dental Sciences. 2015; 4(71): 12300
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
64 Prevalence and factors associated with depressive symptoms among post-partum mothers in Nepal
Rajendra Kumar Giri,Resham Bahadur Khatri,Shiva Raj Mishra,Vishnu Khanal,Vidya Dev Sharma,Ritu Prasad Gartoula
BMC Research Notes. 2015; 8(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
65 A STUDY OF ABUSE INCLUDING PHYSICAL, SUBSTANCE, AND SEXUAL ABUSE AMONG URBAN ADOLESCENT CHILDREN
G N Sanjeeva,Alkarani T Patil,Pragalatha Kumar
Indian Journal of Child Health. 2015; 02(04): 210
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
66 Particulate matter in ambient air and its association with alterations in lung functions and respiratory health problems among outdoor exercisers in National Capital Region, India
Chandrasekharan Nair Kesavachandran,Ritul Kamal,Vipin Bihari,Manoj Kumar Pathak,Amarnath Singh
Atmospheric Pollution Research. 2015; 6(4): 618
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
67 Prevalence and Factors Associated with Vitamin D Deficiency in Indian Children: A Hospital Based Cross Sectional Study
Jaishree Vasudevan,Gopireddy Murali Mohan Reddy,Antony Jenifer,Thayumanavan S,Uma Devi,Rathinasamy M
Pediatric Oncall. 2014; 11(3)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
68 Microvascular Complications and Their Associated Risk Factors in Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients
Dipika Bansal,Kapil Gudala,Hari Prasad Esam,Ramya Nayakallu,Raja Vikram Vyamusani,Anil Bhansali
International Journal of Chronic Diseases. 2014; 2014: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
69 Urogenital Infections as a Risk Factor for Preterm Labor: A Hospital-Based Case–Control Study
Indu Verma,Kumkum Avasthi,Vandana Berry
The Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of India. 2014;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
70 Prevalence and factors associated with childhood overweight/obesity of private school children in Nepal
M. Koirala,R.B. Khatri,V. Khanal,A. Amatya
Obesity Research & Clinical Practice. 2014;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]



 

Top
Print this article  Email this article
           

    

 
   Search
 
  
    Similar in PUBMED
    Search Pubmed for
    Search in Google Scholar for
    Article in PDF (303 KB)
    Citation Manager
    Access Statistics
    Reader Comments
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  


   Acknowledgments
    References
    Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed47407    
    Printed210    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded2235    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 70    

Recommend this journal

  Sitemap | What's New | Feedback | Copyright and Disclaimer
  © 2007 - Indian Journal of Community Medicine | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
  Online since 15th September, 2007