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ORIGINAL ARTICLE Table of Contents   
Year : 2008  |  Volume : 33  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 233-237
Chronology of alcohol dependence: Implications in prevention

1 Department of Psychiatry, NIMHANS, Bangalore, India
2 Division of Clinical Research, Emergency Management and Research Institute (EMRI) Hyderabad, India
3 (Crisis Resolution and Home Treatment) Tees, Esk and Wear Valleys NHS Trust, University Hospital of North Tees, Hardwick Road, Stockton-on-Tees, Cleveland, TS19 8PE, United Kingdom
4 Centre for Addiction Psychiatry, Central Institute of Psychiatry, Ranchi, India
5 Department of Population Neurosciences, University of West Australia, Australia

Correspondence Address:
Sahoo Saddichha
National Tobacco Control Program, Govt. of West Bengal, Kolkata
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0970-0218.42375

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Background: Study of the chronology of criteria of dependence in alcohol dependence syndrome (ADS) can enable us design strategies for the prevention for ADS, which aims at reducing the occurrence of ADS. Objective: To study the age-wise and order-wise chronologies of ICD-10 (DCR) dependence criteria in individuals with ADS. Materials and Methods: Consecutively admitted and consenting inpatients with ICD-10 (DCR) diagnosis of ADS were evaluated in a structured interview after detoxification using Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism (SSAGA)-II. Results: The total sample size was 81. The mean ages at the first onset of alcohol use, development of the first criterion and International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10 th Revision (ICD-10) dependence was 18.72 years (SD, 6.84), 24.33 years (SD, 9.21) and 27.51 years (SD, 9.28), respectively. In age-wise chronology, tolerance, loss of control and craving were present in 97.53%, 80.24% and 79%, respectively, of our study sample. In order-wise chronology, either craving (16%) or tolerance (71.6%) was present as the first criterion and the presence of craving (16%), tolerance (21%) or loss of control (18.5%) was observed in the first criterion in 55.5% of the subjects. Conclusions: Knowledge of chronology, its frequencies and time duration between various milestones in the development of the dependence criteria may enable the selection of the target population at an early stage. The pattern of development of dependence may provide us with an opportunity for interventions to reduce the incidence of ADS, as a step toward primary prevention. Adequate training of the primary care personnel and early psychiatric referral may help in the reduction in the incidence of ADS.

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