HomeAboutusEditorial BoardCurrent issuearchivesSearch articlesInstructions for authorsSubscription detailsAdvertise

  Login  | Users online: 798

   Ahead of print articles    Bookmark this page Print this page Email this page Small font sizeDefault font size Increase font size  

LETTER TO EDITOR Table of Contents   
Year : 2007  |  Volume : 32  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 158-159

Seroprevalence of anti-hepatitis C virus antibody in a hospital-based population of Jaipur, Rajasthan

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Sawai Man Singh Medical College, Jaipur, India

Date of Submission30-May-2006

Correspondence Address:
Parul Sinha
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Sawai Man Singh Medical College, Jaipur
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0970-0218.35670

Rights and Permissions


How to cite this article:
Sharma R, Sinha P, Bachiwal R, Rishi S. Seroprevalence of anti-hepatitis C virus antibody in a hospital-based population of Jaipur, Rajasthan. Indian J Community Med 2007;32:158-9

How to cite this URL:
Sharma R, Sinha P, Bachiwal R, Rishi S. Seroprevalence of anti-hepatitis C virus antibody in a hospital-based population of Jaipur, Rajasthan. Indian J Community Med [serial online] 2007 [cited 2021 Apr 18];32:158-9. Available from: https://www.ijcm.org.in/text.asp?2007/32/2/158/35670

Chronic hepatitis C is a ubiquitous disease affecting around 200 million people worldwide. [1] Infection is usually through contaminated blood and blood products. It may remain silent for many years before manifesting in serious ailments. Only 50% of patients recover; 30% develop persistent viremia with chronic hepatitis and the remaining 20% develop cirrhosis and are at risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma. [2] The screening test is aimed at detection of anti-hepatitis C virus antibody (Anti-HCV Ab), the presence of which indicates previous exposure to HCV. The antibody is present in only 40% of acute infections but in more than 95% of chronic infections. [2] In India, a carrier rate of 0.12-4% has been found. [1] The global prevalence ranges between 0.2-2%. [2]

The present study was conducted over a period of two years in the clinical microbiology laboratory of Sawai Man Singh Hospital (SMSH) Jaipur to evaluate the seroprevalence of anti-HCV Ab. Study subjects included all the individuals whose blood samples had been received in the laboratory for Anti HCV Ab screening, irrespective of their presenting symptoms. The kits used were HCV Microlisa and HCV Tridot (J. Mitra and Company Limited) for detection of antibodies against HCV core antigens viz NS3, NS4, and NS5. Patients who tested positive were divided into three age-groups: 0 12 years, 12-35 years, and >35 years. Liver function tests were performed for all positive subjects.

A total of 4014 samples were screened for anti-HCV Ab, out of which 1.7% (72/4014) were found to be positive: 1.6% (28) in 2003 and 1.93% (44) in 2004. A male preponderance of 3:1 and 4:1 was seen in 2003 and 2004, respectively. A seroprevalence of around 1.57% has been found in a hospital-based study in Cuttack, Orissa and 1.4% prevalence has been reported from Delhi. [1]

The maximum proportion of seropositive individuals was seen in the higher age-groups; 76.38% of seropositive individuals were above 35 years of age, 18.05% were between 12-35 years, and 5.55% were under 12 years of age. The prevalence seems to increase with age, either because of the continuing risk of exposure or due to a cohort effect, with a decline in risk in recent times. [3] Moderate elevations of serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) were seen in all anti-HCV Ab positive patients less than 12 years of age, in 61% of those between 12-35 years, and in 77% of those above 35 years of age.

In the present study, 5.5% (4/72) of all the positive samples were also found to be positive for HBsAg, indicating a coinfection. This was similar to the findings of a study in Manipur [4] but higher than that found in other studies. Coinfection with hepatitis B virus implies an increased risk for developing aggressive liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. [5]

Transfusion of blood or blood products is a well-documented mode of HCV transmission, but only 12.5% (9) of our cases gave a previous history of blood transfusion. In contrast to hepatitis B, perinatal and sexual transmission rates seem to be very low in hepatitis C. Only one patient in our study appeared to have been infected through sexual transmission: her husband had been HCV positive since a few years and other modes of transmission could be ruled out.

At present there is no vaccine available against hepatitis C. It is necessary that medical and health-care personnel are educated about the dangers and consequences of HCV infections. All anti-HCV Ab positive patients must be considered infectious and must be prohibited from donating blood organs, tissues, and semen. [1] Considering the asymptomatic nature of the infection and its potentially lethal consequences, all blood donors and blood-product recipients must be screened for anti-HCV Ab.

   References Top

1.Mishra S, Chayani N, Sarangi G, Mallick B, Pati SB. Seroprevalence of anti HCV antibody in and around Cuttack, Orissa. Indian J Med Microbiol 2002;20:40-1.  Back to cited text no. 1    
2.Baheti R, Gehlot RS, Baheti R. Seroprevalence of anti HCV Ab in healthy voluntary blood donors and in high-risk individuals. JIACM 2000;1:230-2.  Back to cited text no. 2    
3.Bhattacharya S, Badrinath S, Hamide A, Sujatha S. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis C virus in a hospital based general population in South India. Indian J Med Microbiol 2003;21:43-5.  Back to cited text no. 3    
4.Devi KS, Singh NB, Mara J, Singh TB, Singh YM. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus among hepatic disorders and injecting drug users in Manipur: A preliminary report. Indian J Med Microbiol 2004;22:136-7.  Back to cited text no. 4    
5.Hauser SC, Pardi DS, Poterucha JJ. Mayo clinic gastroenterology and hepatology board review. CRC Press: p. 323.  Back to cited text no. 5    

This article has been cited by
1 The Prevalence of Anti-Hepatitis C Antibody among Acute Febrile Illness Cases in Idar Taluk, Gujarat, West India
Shekara Nikitha,Sasidharanpillai Sabeena,Sudandiradas Robin,Dodia Hiren,Varamballi Prasad,Sushama Aswathyraj,Santhosha Devadiga,Jayaram Anup,Govindakarnavar Arunkumar
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology. 2019; 37(2): 225
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 Viral hepatitis among acute hepatitis patients attending tertiary care hospital in central India
Pradip V. Barde,Vivek K. Chouksey,L. Shivlata,Lalit K. Sahare,Ashish K. Thakur
VirusDisease. 2019; 30(3): 367
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 Seroprevalence, Risk Factors and Genotype Distribution for Hepatitis C Infection: A Study from Rural Hospital in Maharashtra
Satish Ramchandrra Patil,Kailash D. Datkhile,M.V. Ghorpade,Supriya Satish Patil,Satish V. Kakade
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology. 2017; 35(4): 563
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
4 Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Virus Infections in Uttarakhand, India
Garima Mittal,Pratima Gupta,Rohit Gupta,Vivek Ahuja,Manish Mittal,Minakshi Dhar
Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology. 2013;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]


Print this article  Email this article


    Similar in PUBMED
    Search Pubmed for
    Search in Google Scholar for
    Article in PDF (117 KB)
    Citation Manager
    Access Statistics
    Reader Comments
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  


 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded188    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 4    

Recommend this journal

  Sitemap | What's New | Feedback | Copyright and Disclaimer
  2007 - Indian Journal of Community Medicine | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
  Online since 15th September, 2007