HomeAboutusEditorial BoardCurrent issuearchivesSearch articlesInstructions for authorsSubscription detailsAdvertise

  Login  | Users online: 1585

   Ahead of print articles    Bookmark this page Print this page Email this page Small font sizeDefault font size Increase font size  

SHORT ARTICLE Table of Contents   
Year : 2007  |  Volume : 32  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 60-62

Gender preference and awareness regarding sex determination among married women in slums of Chandigarh

Department of Community Medicine, Govt. Medical College, College Building, Sector 32-A, Chandigarh - 160047, India

Date of Web Publication6-Aug-2009

Correspondence Address:
S Puri
Department of Community Medicine, Govt. Medical College, College Building, Sector 32-A, Chandigarh - 160047
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0970-0218.53406

Rights and Permissions


How to cite this article:
Puri S, Bhatia V, Swami H M. Gender preference and awareness regarding sex determination among married women in slums of Chandigarh. Indian J Community Med 2007;32:60-2

How to cite this URL:
Puri S, Bhatia V, Swami H M. Gender preference and awareness regarding sex determination among married women in slums of Chandigarh. Indian J Community Med [serial online] 2007 [cited 2022 May 20];32:60-2. Available from: https://www.ijcm.org.in/text.asp?2007/32/1/60/53406

Female foeticide resulting in decline of child sex ratio has led to enforcement of Preconception & Prenatal diagnostic Techniques (PNDT) act since February 2003.

Sex ratio, an important social indicator measuring extent of prevailing equity between males & females in society, is defined as no. of females /1000 males. Changes in sex ratio reflect underlying socioeconomic, cultural patterns of a society. As per 2001 census sex ratio in India is 933/1000 males, which continues to be significantly adverse towards women and is the lowest amongst 10 most populous countries in world. Russia tops the list in sex ratio (1140) followed by USA (1029) [1] .

Most alarming is decrease in CSR (Child sex ratio 0-6). In Punjab the number was least (793) in 2001, followed by Haryana (820) and Chandigarh (845).

Advances in technology & diagnostic facilities have opened up avenue for the girl haters leading to serious disturbances in sex ratio as a result of female foeticide.

Desire for male child manifests so blatantly that parents have no qualms about repeated, closely spaced pregnancies, premature deaths & even terminating child before it is born. Birth of female child is perceived as a curse with economic & social liability [2] .Therefore the present study was conducted among married women dwelling in slums & semi-rural area to find out the level of their awareness regarding sex determination and attitude towards gender.

   Material and Methods Top

The study was conducted in the year 2004 that enrolled 373 married females in the age group of 20-45 years attending General OPD, Family Welfare clinic and Antenatal Clinic of health centre attached to Govt. Medical College, Chandigarh. The centre has excellent infrastructure in form of logistics and trained manpower of Doctors and Paramedicals. The centre is located in modern urban locality and caters to slum population (nearly 35,000).

Around 60-80 patients visit this health centre daily. Usually, the number of patients from urban, rural and slum area account for 45%, 30% and 25%. The antenatal, nursing and other married female patients account for 40% of the total OPD patients. A pre-designed proforma was used to elicit information on the knowledge of sex determination techniques along with preference for the male child among women attending OPD. Every 2nd pregnant women coming from slum area was interviewed by lady doctors. Consent was taken before filling the questionnaire (12% of females refused to participate). Hence 373 females got enrolled in the study.

   Results Top

The sample of 373 females over a period of 6 months (Dec. 2003 to May 2004) comprised of 88 (22.2%) primi gravida and 290 (77.7%) multi gravida. 245 (65.6%) married females, desired of two children followed by 104 (27.8%) who wanted to have 3 children. Only 12 (3.2%) desired more than 3 children.

331 (88.4%) were not aware of sex determination techniques where as 44 (11.6%) were aware. 244 (65.5%) agreed to the fact that sex determination is a crime. 61 (16.3%) & 42 (11.4%) knew about punishment for sex determination & implications of killing of female child, respectively.

331 (88.4%) were not aware of sex determination techniques where as 44 (11.6%) were aware. 244 (65.5%) agreed to the fact that sex determination is a crime. 61 (16.3%) & 42 (11.4%) knew about punishment for sex determination & implications of killing of female child, respectively.

Among respondents 48(57.8%) intended to have their first baby boy as compared to 12 (14.4%) who wanted to have baby girl. Out of 124 women with first child as a baby boy 55(44.3%) wanted second child as boy as compared to 32(25.8%) who wanted a girl.

Out of 93 women with first child as a baby girl 74 (79.5%) keenly wanted second baby as a boy & only 5 (5.3%) did not want any further child. Out of 33 women who had two baby boys previously, 11 (33.3%) wanted their third baby as a girl and 14 (42.42%) did not want to conceive further. A strong desire for male baby in 30 (75%) women was seen among women with two baby girls. Overall the study observed male preference was in 209(56%) married women.

   Discussion Top

The study done in the age group of 20-35 years included married women belonging to poor socioeconomic groups residing in rural & slum area. Sample of 373 women is representative of 35000 slum population which is catered by Urban Health Training Centre.

Out of 373 females 22.2%were primi gravida and 77.7% were multi gravida. About two-third intended to have two child norm as compared to 3.2% who opted for one child and 13.2% for more than three children The preference for a male heir & birth of girl child, not an occasion to celebrate has its origin in the age-old custom. Dowry is a major reason for parents to resent a daughter birth & moreover they think it is pointless to spend so much on a girl education and upbringing only to leave for anothers home, without repaying.

The present study too shows the desireness for males Majority (57.8%) intended to have male as their first child &14.4% wanted second child too as male even with the first male baby. Three-fourth women wanted to have their third baby as boy after two baby daughters and 6% wanted a boy even after two baby boys. Similar kind of preference has been observed in different parts of the country evident from studies of Mumbai, Himachal Pradesh and other states [3],[4],[5] .The unabashed preference for son has been documented in other studies too. The studies is done in Haryana shows that with one son living 27% wanted to have next child as male baby and with two sons desireness was seen in 3.5% [6] .

Strong desire for male leads to bias in various aspects of life between boy & a girl which has been corroborated in various studies. Rao observed in this studies that boys are given the privilege of good food, education where as girls are entitled for household chores [7] . The disparity was seen in immunization of the child too. Study done by Joy depicted that male children outnumbered females in maturity of state in India. Immunization factor was found to be 0.33 in Punjab as compared to 0.17 in Himachal Pradesh [8] . This fact was very well supported by study done by Puri Nina who found that inspite of having biological advantage over boys, more girls die due to gender discrimination and gross neglect.

Sex ratio has declining in the country recently. Its lowest in Punjab (793) an in Chandigarh it is (845) [1] . This has been attributed to the alarming trend of female foeticide has a result of pre-determination of sex. Sex determination has become with in the reach of people because of ultrasonography, being cheap easily accessible. The implication of this only led to be inception of PNDT act. The various modifications done under this now includes that not only the person, but also the one getting the patient along with the patient would be punished and the placed and the nursing home / private hospital not registered as MTP centre would be closed.

The present study showed that only 11.66% of subjects had knowledge where sex determination can be done and 65.5% agreed to the fact that it is a crime. Acquaintance about the legal punishment and penalty for sex determination was found to be only 16.3% its surprising that inspite of so much development & improvement in literacy status still the dislike for female child and women is groped in the society that is evident from many studies [9] . This calls for an effective advocacy by ruling authorities for enforcement of PNDT act to curb female foeticide . An integrated approach of Govt and NGO's is desired. Govt. of India has done substantial work throwing considerable light on subjects of girl child through implementation of various programmes to restore the rights and dignities of girl child, giving her a world where she can live, live and dream and enrich our lives.

The present study has shown a clear picture of recent scenario of the female foeticide & infanticide and a strong desire for male child among women from urban slums. This calls for a need to educate women from under privileged population about gender equality and recommendations under PNDT act in order to improve declining sex ratio in our country.[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]

   References Top

1.Focus-Population Environment Development: A Bulletin of Population Foundation of India: 2004.  Back to cited text no. 1    
2.Kanitkar T and Mistry M. Status of women in India- an interstate comparison : The Indian Journal of social work:2000;381-3.  Back to cited text no. 2    
3.Mutharayappa R, Arnold F and Roy T.K. Son preference and its impact on fertility in India, National family health subject reports no. 3,Mumbai: International Institute for population sciences.  Back to cited text no. 3    
4.Sunday Times of India: son preference in India, Mumbai May 11-2000.  Back to cited text no. 4    
5.Malhi P, Raina G, Malhotra D. Preference for the sex of children & its implications for reproductive behaviour in Urban Himachal Pradesh 1999;23-9.  Back to cited text no. 5    
6.Malhi P. Influence of gender preference for children on fertility behaviour: A comparative study of men & women in Haryana 1995; 53-7.  Back to cited text no. 6    
7.Rao N. Gender Bias in Nutrition, Some Issues. Journal of Family Welfare 1995; 1-9.  Back to cited text no. 7    
8.Elamon J. Gender differentials in child immunization-A study based on NFHS data. Journal of Family Welfare 1998; 12-7.  Back to cited text no. 8    
9.Puri N. Girl child in India. Journal of Family Welfare 1998; 1-9.  Back to cited text no. 9    


  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]

This article has been cited by
1 Gender determination and gender gap: A cross sectional comparative study of mothers attending under five immunisation clinics in urban and rural areas
Shalini Rawat, Ashwini Yadav, Kamaxi Bhate
Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care. 2021; 10(9): 3470
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 Perceptions of married women about reasons and suggested solutions regarding gender preferences for offspring in Katputli Nagar, Jaipur: a cross-sectional study
Vivek Bharti, Suresh Kewalramani, Amita Kashyap, Priyanka Kapoor
MGM Journal of Medical Sciences. 2021; 8(4): 398
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 Gender preference among post-natal women for the next child: A study from coastal south India
Nithin Kumar,Rekha Thapar,Prasanna Mithra,Bhaskaran Unnikrishnan,Kausthubh Hegde,K. Nishantha Bhat,Noel Rayen,Varun Holla,Ramesh Holla,Vaman Kulkarni,Darshan Bhagawan,Avinash Kumar
Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health. 2020; 8(2): 389
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
4 Culture’s consequences: Economic barriers to owning mobile phones experienced by women in India
Devendra Potnis
Telematics and Informatics. 2016; 33(2): 356
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
5 The relationship of gender preference to anxiety, stress and family violence among pregnant women in urban India
T.A. Supraja,Meiya Varghese,Geetha Desai,Prabha S Chandra
International Journal of Culture and Mental Health. 2016; 9(4): 356
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
6 Gender preference and awareness regarding sex determination among antenatal mothers attending a medical college of eastern India
Shamima Yasmin,Anindya Mukherjee,Nirmalya Manna,Baijayanti Baur,Mousumi Datta,Manabendra Sau,Manidipa Roy,Samir Dasgupta
Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. 2013; 41(4): 344
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
7 Women’s perception about sex selection in an urban slum in Delhi
Neelima Bhagat, Ananya Ray Laskar, Nandini Sharma
Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology. 2012; 30(1): 92
[VIEW] | [DOI]
8 Female feticide in India: A social evil
Srivasava Anupama, P. M. Durge
The Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of India. 2010; 60(6): 503
[VIEW] | [DOI]
9 Socio-cultural determinants of female foeticide
B. S. Dewan,A. M. Khan
Social Change. 2009; 39(3): 388
[Pubmed] | [DOI]


Print this article  Email this article


    Similar in PUBMED
    Search Pubmed for
    Search in Google Scholar for
    Article in PDF (42 KB)
    Citation Manager
    Access Statistics
    Reader Comments
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

    Material and Methods
    Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded385    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 9    

Recommend this journal

  Sitemap | What's New | Copyright and Disclaimer | Privacy Notice
  © 2007 - Indian Journal of Community Medicine | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
  Online since 15th September, 2007