HomeAboutusEditorial BoardCurrent issuearchivesSearch articlesInstructions for authorsSubscription detailsAdvertise

  Login  | Users online: 650

   Ahead of print articles    Bookmark this page Print this page Email this page Small font sizeDefault font size Increase font size  

ARTICLE Table of Contents   
Year : 2005  |  Volume : 30  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 97

Evaluation of Pulse Polio and Routine Immunization Coverage in the Urban and Rural Population of Ludhiana District

Department of Community Medicine, Christian Medical College, Ludhiana-141008, India

Date of Web Publication7-Aug-2009

Correspondence Address:
S Singh
Department of Community Medicine, Christian Medical College, Ludhiana-141008
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0970-0218.42861

Rights and Permissions


How to cite this article:
Singh S, Benjamin A, Panda P, Bhatia A S. Evaluation of Pulse Polio and Routine Immunization Coverage in the Urban and Rural Population of Ludhiana District. Indian J Community Med 2005;30:97

How to cite this URL:
Singh S, Benjamin A, Panda P, Bhatia A S. Evaluation of Pulse Polio and Routine Immunization Coverage in the Urban and Rural Population of Ludhiana District. Indian J Community Med [serial online] 2005 [cited 2022 May 28];30:97. Available from: https://www.ijcm.org.in/text.asp?2005/30/3/97/42861

   Introduction Top

Poliomyelitis is the commonest cause of Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) in India, and polio eradication is an urgent necessity. [1] The options for prevention are provision of safe water, proper sanitation and immunization. [2] The impact of routine polio immunization and PPI on the incidence of poliomyelitis is well known. [3]

   Objectives Top

  1. To assess the pulse polio and the routine polio immunization coverages in rural and urban communities.
  2. To find out the sources of information for PPI and the causes of missed doses.

   Material and Methods Top

This cross-sectional study was conducted in 8 villages and 6 urban areas of Ludhiana district. All the households in the surveyed villages/localities were included in the study. House­to-house survey was conducted using a three-part questionnaire and the respondents were the parents of the under-five year old children.

   Results Top

The details of population covered, families surveyed, number of children and the PPI coverage are shown in the [Table 1]. The PPI coverage in the 0-5 year old children studied was found to be 93.41% in rural areas and 83.91% in urban areas, respectively.(23.68%) and neighbours (22.35%). In rual areas the main sources were Health workers (43.94%) followed by the mass media and announcement from the Gurudwaras and temples (33.65%)

The commonest causes of missed doses were "unawareness" (41.10%), "non-availability" (21.10%) and forgetfulness (15.16%) in rural areas, while in the urban areas they were "not-born at the tm of 1st dose" (49.51%), "out of station" (32.03%) and "no belief in immunization" (11.65%)

   PPI Coverage Top

In the present study, the PPI coverage was higher in the rural children as compared to the urban. The urban children had a large proportion of immigrant population from adjoining states like Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar and Rajasthan. This migrant population is not well covered by the existing health care system. The enumeration of rural children is better than the urban children. Despite good coverage 5-6% of children are missed in the PPI programme. Nandan D. et al [4] reported the PPI coverage among children under 3 years of age, as : 1st dose-86.67%, 2nd dose-87.67%, both doses­83.17%, while 5.5% did not receive any dose.

Routine and Booster dose coverage reasonably satisfactory enumeration of target children in rural areas with the help of available infrastructure is nearly complete (over 95%).

   Recommendations Top

Complete enumeration of the children is a must, which is presently unsatisfactory in the urban areas (migrant populations). The common sources of information should be effectively used in the urban and rural areas, not only for PPI but also for other vaccinations and preventive interventions in the communities. The causes of missed doses in the urban and rural areas needs to be addressed, to assure the maximum possible coverage of PPI, the routine primary immunization under the Universal Immunisation Programme (UIP) and the immunization efforts for control of other vaccine-preventable diseases.

   References Top

1.Basu R.N. Lameness survey, Indian Paediatrics 1984; 18; 507.  Back to cited text no. 1    
2.Lal S. Towards Eradication of Poliomyelitis, Indian J Community Medicine; 1997; XXII, No. 4, 139-144.  Back to cited text no. 2    
3.Soudarssanana M.B. Pulse Polio Immunization -Evolution of the Poliomyelitis programme in India using the oral polio vaccine. Indian J Community Medicine; 1997; XXII, No. 4, 178-183.  Back to cited text no. 3    
4.Nandan D., Mishra S.K., Gupta Gajendra K., Gupta S., Maheshwari B.B. Pulse Polio Immunization Coverage Evaluation in a Rural Area of Agra District, Indian J Community Medicine; 1997; XXI, No. 1-4, 34-36.  Back to cited text no. 4    


  [Table 1]


Print this article  Email this article


    Similar in PUBMED
    Search Pubmed for
    Search in Google Scholar for
    Article in PDF (104 KB)
    Citation Manager
    Access Statistics
    Reader Comments
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

    Material and Methods
    PPI Coverage
    Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded229    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal

  Sitemap | What's New | Copyright and Disclaimer | Privacy Notice
  © 2007 - Indian Journal of Community Medicine | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
  Online since 15th September, 2007