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   2010| July-September  | Volume 35 | Issue 3  
    Online since September 13, 2010

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Clinical manifestations and trend of dengue cases admitted in a tertiary care hospital, Udupi district, Karnataka
Ashwini Kumar, Chythra R Rao, Vinay Pandit, Seema Shetty, Chanaveerappa Bammigatti, Charmaine Minoli Samarasinghe
July-September 2010, 35(3):386-390
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.69253  PMID:21031102
Background: India is one of the seven identified countries in the South-East Asia region regularly reporting dengue fever (DF)/dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) outbreaks and may soon transform into a major niche for dengue infection in the future with more and more new areas being struck by dengue epidemics. Objective: To study the clinical manifestations, trend and outcome of all confirmed dengue cases admitted in a tertiary care hospital. Study Design: Record-based study conducted in a coastal district of Karnataka. Required data from all the laboratory confirmed cases from 2002 to 2008 were collected from Medical Records Department (MRD) and analyzed using SPSS 13.5 version. Results: Study included 466 patients. Majority were males, 301(64.6%) and in the and in the age group of 15-44 years, 267 (57.5%). Maximum number of cases were seen in 2007, 219 (47%) and in the month of September, 89 (19.1%). The most common presentation was fever 462 (99.1%), followed by myalgia 301 (64.6%), vomiting 222 (47.6%), headache 222 (47.6%) and abdominal pain 175 (37.6%). The most common hemorrhagic manifestation was petechiae 84 (67.2%). 391 (83.9%) cases presented with dengue fever, 41 (8.8%) dengue hemorrhagic fever, and 34 (7.3%) with dengue shock syndrome. Out of 66 (14.1%) patients who developed clinical complications, 22 (33.3%) had ARDS and 20 (30.3%) had pleural effusion. Deaths reported were 11(2.4%). Conclusion: Community awareness, early diagnosis and management and vector control measures need to be strengthened, during peri-monsoon period, in order to curb the increasing number of dengue cases.
  13 10,269 927
Domestic violence against women and their mental health status in a colony in Delhi
Alka S Vachher, AK Sharma
July-September 2010, 35(3):403-405
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.69266  PMID:21031106
Background: Violence against women is a major public health and human rights issue in the world today. This study was conducted to assess the consequences of domestic violence on the mental health of women of reproductive age group. Materials and Methods: A community-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in Raj Nagar- I, urban locality in west Delhi near Palam. 350 women of 15-49 years age group residing in the community were selected by stratified random sampling. These women were administered an interview schedule adapted from WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence. They were assessed for the presence of domestic violence. Mental health status of these women was estimated by using self-reporting questionnaire 20. Data were analyzed using SPSS 12 software. The test applied was chi square test for proportion and binary logistic regression. Results: 42.8% of the women reported one or the other types of violence. 34.9% of the women reported either physical or sexual violence ever in life. 29.1% of the women reported either physical or sexual violence in past 1 year (current violence). 12% of the women reported mental ill health. Women who had experienced domestic violence were more likely to report mental ill health status and suicidal tendencies as compared to women who had not experienced violence. Conclusion: Domestic violence is associated with mental ill health.
  9 7,130 514
CME
E-waste management: As a challenge to public health in India
Monika , Jugal Kishore
July-September 2010, 35(3):382-385
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.69251  PMID:21031101
  8 12,631 596
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Diabetes prevalence and its risk factors in rural area of Tamil Nadu
Sanjay Kumar Gupta, Zile Singh, Anil J Purty, M Kar, DR Vedapriya, P Mahajan, J Cherian
July-September 2010, 35(3):396-399
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.69262  PMID:21031104
Objectives: To estimate the usefulness of the Indian diabetes risk score for detecting undiagnosed diabetes in the rural area of Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted in the field practice area of rural health centers (Chunampett and Annechikuppam, Tamil Nadu), covering a population of 35000 from February to March 2008 by using a predesigned and pretested protocol to find out the prevalence and the risk of diabetes mellitus in general population by using Indian diabetes risk score. Results: 1936 respondents comprising 1167 (60.27%) females and 769 (39.73%) males were studied. Majority 1203 (62.50%) were Hindus. 1220 (63.%) had studied up to higher secondary. 1200 (62%) belonged to lower and lower-middle socio-economic class. A large number of the subjects 948 (50%) were below 35 years of age. Most of the respondents 1411 (73%) indulged in mild to moderate physical activity. 1715 (87.91%) had no family history of diabetes mellitus. 750 (39.64%) individuals were in the overweight category (>25 BMI). Out of these overweight persons, 64% had high diabetic risk score. It is observed that chances of high diabetic score increase with the increase in BMI. Prevalence of diabetes in studied population was 5.99%; out of these, 56% known cases of diabetes mellitus had high (>60) IDRS. Co-relation between BMI and IDRS shows that, if BMI increases from less than 18.50 to more than 30, chances of high risk for developing diabetes mellitus also significantly increase. Conclusion: This study estimates the usefulness of simplified Indian diabetes risk score for identifying undiagnosed high risk diabetic subjects in India. This simplified diabetes risk score has categorized the risk factors based on their severity. Use of the IDRS can make mass screening for undiagnosed diabetes in India more cost effective.
  6 7,810 1,155
Association of adiposity with Pulse pressure amongst Gujarati Indian adolescents
Wasim A Shaikh, Minal Patel, SK Singh
July-September 2010, 35(3):406-408
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.69267  PMID:21031107
Background and Aim: The current study was conducted to determine the effect of adiposity on vascular distensibility in Gujarati Indian adolescents as research indicating the pathogenesis of hypertension among overweight and/or obese Indian adolescents is scant and ethnic differences exist in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 488 Gujarati Indian adolescents of 16-19 years age group. Adiposity was assessed in terms of BMI, Body Fat %, Fat Mass, Fat Mass Index and Waist Circumference. Arterial blood pressure was recorded and pulse pressure (PP) was calculated using the standard equation based on the difference between systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). Pearson's correlation coefficient was determined to find the association between the markers of adiposity and SBP, DBP and PP. Result: A significant positive correlationship was found between adiposity and PP in boys. However, no significant correlationship was found between adiposity and PP in girls. Conclusion: An increase in total as well as visceral adiposity is probably associated with a decrease in vascular distensibility in the Gujarati Indian adolescent boys but not in girls, thus indicating a protective role of female sex hormone estrogen which has been shown earlier to protect the vasculature from atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction which occurs with increase in adiposity.
  6 4,050 220
Age heaping and accuracy of age data collected during a community survey in the Yavatmal district, Maharashtra
Geeta S Pardeshi
July-September 2010, 35(3):391-395
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.69256  PMID:21031103
Background: Age is an important variable in epidemiological studies and an invariable part of community-based study reports. Aims: The aim was to assess the accuracy of age data collected during community surveys. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was designed in rural areas of the Yavatmal district. Materials and Methods: Age data were collected by a house-to-house survey in six villages. An open-ended questionnaire was used for data collection. Statistical Analysis: Age heaping and digit preference were measured by calculating Whipple's index and Myers' blended index. Age Ratio Scores (ARS) and Age Accuracy Index (AAI) were also calculated. Results: Whipple's index for the 10-year age range, i.e., those reporting age with terminal digit "0" was 386.71. Whipple's index for the 5-year range, i.e., those reporting age with terminal digit '0' or '5' was 382.74. Myer's blended index calculated for the study population was 41.99. AAI for the population studied was 14.71 with large differences between frequencies of males and females at certain ages. Conclusion: The age data collected in the survey were of very poor quality. There was age heaping at ages with terminal digits '0' and '5', indicating a preference in reporting such ages and 42% of the population reported ages with an incorrect final digit. Innovative methods in data collection along with measuring and minimizing errors using statistical techniques should be used to ensure the accuracy of age data which can be checked using various indices.
  5 5,579 195
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
Utilization of dental services in a field practice area in Mangalore, Karnataka
Sijan Poudyal, Ashwini Rao, Ramya Shenoy, Harsh Priya
July-September 2010, 35(3):424-425
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.69278  PMID:21031111
  5 2,878 228
Investigation of an outbreak of diphtheria in Borborooah block of Dibrugarh district, Assam
Benu Nath, Tulika Goswami Mahanta
July-September 2010, 35(3):436-438
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.69282  PMID:21031115
  4 2,953 232
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Knowledge of emergency contraception and contraceptive practices: Representative study from rural Uttar Pradesh
Aruna Nigam, Neha Maheshwari, Anupam Prakash
July-September 2010, 35(3):449-450
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.69293  PMID:21031125
  3 2,596 320
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Factors influencing utilization of ASHA services under NRHM in relation to maternal health in rural Lucknow
Manish K Singh, JV Singh, N Ahmad, Reema Kumari, A Khanna
July-September 2010, 35(3):414-419
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.69272  PMID:21031109
Background: Under National Rural Health Mission (NRHM), ASHA (accredited social health activist) has been identified as an effective link to address the poor utilization of maternal and child health (MCH) services by rural pregnant women. Objective: To study the factors influencing utilization of ASHA services in relation to maternal health. Study Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Primary Health Centre (PHC), Sarojininagar, Lucknow and its rural field area. Study Period: September 2007 to August 2008. Study Unit: RDW (recently delivered women) were considered as those who delivered a live newborn at PHC Sarojininagar, within a week of interview and belonged to villages within the confines of the PHC being served by ASHA. Materials and Methods: 350 RDW were interviewed at their bedside, by a preformed and pretested schedule and then were followed-up after six weeks. Results: Utilization of ASHA services for early registration was significantly associated with age and religion of RDW. Young, educated and socio-economic class III RDW utilized ASHA services the maximum for early registration. Utilization of ASHA services for adequate ANC or antenatal care (100 iron and folic acid tablets, 2 tetanus toxoid injection and ΃3 antenatal visits) was also inversely associated with age of RDW. Young, Hindu, scheduled caste, middle school pass, Class III RDW and those with birth order one had high odds for utilization of ASHA services for adequate ANC. With regard to postnatal check-up, again young RDW with birth order one, Hindu RDW in reference to Muslim and RDW in socio-economic class III had higher likelihood for utilization of ASHA services. Caste-wise scheduled caste (SC) and other backward caste (OBC) RDW had higher odds for utilization of ASHA services. Educated RDW and those with educated husband had higher odds for utilization of ASHA services for postnatal check-up. Conclusion: Young, educated RDW with low parity, educated husband and belonging to higher socio-economic class had higher odds of utilization of ASHA services.
  3 7,129 960
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
Tobacco use among rural schoolchildren of 13-15 years age group: A cross-sectional study
Rekha P Shenoy, Prashanth K Shenai, Ganesh Shenoy Panchmal, Shashidhar M Kotian
July-September 2010, 35(3):433-435
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.69281  PMID:21031114
  3 2,818 374
CME
Knowledge, truth, and social reality: An introductory note on qualitative research
N Nakkeeran
July-September 2010, 35(3):379-381
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.69249  PMID:21031100
  2 3,406 406
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Training in clinical research in India
Sourabh Aggarwal, Harkirat Singh, Pranshu Bansal, Adarsh Goyal, Kalra Saminder Singh
July-September 2010, 35(3):446-446
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.69289  PMID:21031122
  2 1,922 108
Comparative risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus among vegetarians and non-vegetarians
Gaffar Sarwar Zaman, Forhad Akhtar Zaman, Mohammad Arifullah
July-September 2010, 35(3):441-442
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.69285  PMID:21031118
  2 2,844 242
A cross-sectional study of factors influencing sex preference of a child among married women in reproductive age group in a rural area of Pune, Maharashtra
Madhura Ashturkar, Kevin Fernandez, Harshal T Pandve
July-September 2010, 35(3):442-443
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.69286  PMID:21031119
  2 2,492 298
Intradermal cell culture rabies vaccine: A cost effective option in antirabies treatment
Asma Rahim, Kumaresan Kuppuswamy, Bina Thomas, Lucy Raphael
July-September 2010, 35(3):443-444
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.69287  PMID:21031120
  2 2,710 174
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Generating an evidence base for information, education and communication needs of the community regarding deafness: A qualitative study
Neelima Gupta, Arun Sharma, PP Singh
July-September 2010, 35(3):420-423
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.69275  PMID:21031110
Background: India is a significant contributor to the world's total burden of deafness. Out of all causes, almost 50% of the causes of decreased hearing are preventable. With the launch of the National Programme for Prevention and Control of Deafness, the need for an effective information, education and communication (IEC) campaign was felt. There is negligible information available about the status of awareness levels of the community about the various aspects of hearing loss. We carried out this research with the objective of getting to know the existing awareness related to hearing loss in the community to generate an evidence base for formulating various messages to be incorporated in IEC materials for dissemination in the community. We also asked the participants about their suggestions for the various information resources so that an IEC campaign could be designed accordingly. Materials and Methods: We carried out 10 focus group discussions among various groups of population and analyzed the discussion. Results: A descriptive analysis of the observations regarding the awareness about deafness in the community and prevalent myths and suggested information resources is presented. Conclusion: We highlight the lacunae in the existing awareness of various causes of deafness and the preventive measures that could be taken to prevent hearing loss. The evidence generated was used to formulate relevant messages for the various target groups, which were then incorporated in development of the IEC materials for the dissemination in the community.
  2 2,723 226
Study of secondhand smoke levels pre and post implementation of the comprehensive smoking ban in Mumbai
Aditi Deshpande, Priyanka Kudtarkar, Dhanashri Dhaware, Rohini Chowgule
July-September 2010, 35(3):409-413
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.69269  PMID:21031108
Objectives: This research was undertaken with the aim of assessing the indoor air quality in popular hospitality venues, as also to evaluate the effectiveness of the nationwide comprehensive public smoking ban. The analysis was split into two halves - baseline study taken up prior to implementation of the said ban on 2 nd October 2008, and the follow-up study after it came into effect. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five venues including five restaurants, fourteen resto-bars, two hookah (smoking water-pipe) cafes and four pubs were selected using a mix of random, convenience and purposeful sampling. Particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) measurements at these venues were made using TSI SidePak AM510 Personal Aerosol Monitor. Results: The average PM 2.5 level in venues where smoking was permitted prior to implementation of ban was found to be 669.95 ΅g/m 3 in the baseline study. Post ban, the average PM 2.5 level in same test venues reduced to 240.8 ΅g/m 3 . The hookah cafes were an exception as the average PM 2.5 levels exceeded the permissible limits before as well as post ban. Conclusion: The baseline study showed that the hospitality venues had hazardous levels of PM 2.5 particles arising from second-hand smoke prior to smoking ban. These decreased by a maximum of 64% after the law took effect. A substantial improvement in air quality at these venues post implementation of the smoking ban indicated the effectiveness of the law.
  2 3,561 198
VIEW POINTS
Protecting our fledgling families: A case for Relationship-Focused family life education programs
Jane A Henry
July-September 2010, 35(3):373-375
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.69246  PMID:21031098
  2 3,184 287
LETTERS TO EDITOR
The influence of television on children and adolescents in an urban slum
Pankaja Raghav, Alok Kumar
July-September 2010, 35(3):447-447
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.69291  PMID:21031123
  1 4,559 246
A study of physical activity habits of young adults
Amitav Banerjee, Swati Khatri
July-September 2010, 35(3):450-451
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.69292  PMID:21031126
  1 2,739 318
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Nutrient intake amongst rural adolescent girls of Wardha
CH Maliye, PR Deshmukh, SS Gupta, S Kaur, AM Mehendale, BS Garg
July-September 2010, 35(3):400-402
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.69264  PMID:21031105
Objective: To assess the nutrient intake of rural adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional study was carried in four adopted villages of the Department of Community Medicine, M.G.I.M.S., Sewagram. A household survey was carried out in the villages. A list of all the adolescent girls in the age group of 10-19 years was prepared by enumeration through house-to-house visit. All adolescent girls were included in the study. A pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic variables and anthropometric variables. A 24 h recall method was used to assess nutrient intake. Data generated was entered and analyzed using epi_info 2000. Nutrient intake was compared with ICMR Recommended Dietary Allowances. Nutritional status was assessed by BMI for age. Results: The mean height of the adolescent girls was 142.9 cm. Overall, 57% of the adolescents were thin (BMI for age <5 th percentile for CDC 2000 reference) and 43% of the adolescents were normal (BMI for age between 5 th - 85 th percentile for CDC 2000 reference). The average energy intake, which was 1239.6±176.4 kcal/day, was deficient of RDA by 39%. The average protein intake was 39.5±7 gm/day. It was deficient by 36% and the average iron intake, which was 13.2±2.5 mg/day, was deficient by 48%. Conclusion: The findings reiterate the dietary deficiency among adolescent girls which adversely affects the nutritional status. If the poor nutritional status is not corrected promptly before they become pregnant, it adversely affects the reproductive outcome. If we have to meet out the goals of Reproductive and Child Health Program, intervention strategies to improve the dietary intake of adolescent girls are needed so that their requirements of energy, protein, vitamins and minerals are met.
  1 3,912 482
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
Sociodemographic comparison and impact of Aila: The supercyclone in Gosaba of West Bengal
Ranjan Bhattacharyya, Debasish Sanyal, Salil Kumar Dutta, Malati Ghosh, Sumita Bhattacharyya
July-September 2010, 35(3):429-432
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.69280  PMID:21031113
  1 2,075 103
VIEW POINTS
Keeping an eye on future: Medical tourism
R Jose, Sandeep Sachdeva
July-September 2010, 35(3):376-378
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.69247  PMID:21031099
  1 5,928 487
BOOK REVIEW
Bioterrorism: A public health challenge
Pankaj Agrawal
July-September 2010, 35(3):452-452
  - 1,704 178
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Prevalence and causes of locomotor disability in the community staying near the rural health center in Goa: A community-based study
Sagar Borker, DD Motghare, MS Kulkarni, PP Venugopalan
July-September 2010, 35(3):448-449
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.69294  PMID:21031124
  - 3,523 183
Male contraception - A molecular approach
Manjit Panigrahi, Ansuman Panigrahi
July-September 2010, 35(3):439-440
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.69283  PMID:21031116
  - 1,718 153
Perception of mothers about their daughters future in rural Karnataka
Rashmi
July-September 2010, 35(3):440-441
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.69284  PMID:21031117
  - 1,521 124
Awareness of health insurance among Inpatients at a tertiary care hospital in coastal Karnataka
B Reshmi, Ragil Raghunath, B Unnikrishnan
July-September 2010, 35(3):445-446
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.69288  PMID:21031121
  - 2,662 216
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
Lifestyle disease risk factors in a North Indian Community in Delhi
Ananya Laskar, Nandini Sharma, Neelima Bhagat
July-September 2010, 35(3):426-428
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.69279  PMID:21031112
  - 3,164 418
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  2007 - Indian Journal of Community Medicine | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
  Online since 15th September, 2007