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   2010| January-March  | Volume 35 | Issue 1  
    Online since April 19, 2010

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A study of dysmenorrhea during menstruation in adolescent girls
Anil K Agarwal, Anju Agarwal
January-March 2010, 35(1):159-164
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.62586  PMID:20606943
Research question: What is the prevalence of dysmenorrhea severity and its associated symptoms among adolescent girls? Objectives: (1) To study the prevalence of dysmenorrhea in high school adolescent girls of Gwalior. (2) To study the evidence of severity of the problem with associated symptoms and general health status. Study design: An explorative survey technique with a correlational approach. Setting and Participants: Nine hundred and seventy adolescent girls of age 15 to 20 years, studying in the higher secondary schools (Pre-University Colleges) of Gwalior. Statistical analysis: Percentages, Chi-square test, and Test-Retest Method. Results: The prevalence of dysmenorrhea in adolescent girls was found to be 79.67%. Most of them, 37.96%, suffered regularly from dysmenorrhea severity. The three most common symptoms present on both days, that is,day before and first day of menstruation were lethargy and tiredness (first), depression (second) and inability to concentrate in work (third), whereas the ranking of these symptoms on the day after the stoppage of menstruation showed depression as the first common symptoms. Negative correlation had found between dysmenorrhea and the General Health Status as measured by the Body surface area.
  13,511 762 16
Measuring patient satisfaction: A case study to improve quality of care at public health facilities
Prahlad Rai Sodani, Rajeev K Kumar, Jayati Srivastava, Laxman Sharma
January-March 2010, 35(1):52-56
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.62554  PMID:20606920
Objective: The main objective of the study is to measure the satisfaction of OPD (Outpatient Department) patients in public health facilities of Madhya Pradesh in India. Materials and Methods: Data were collected from OPD patients through pre-structured questionnaires at public health facilities in the sampled eight districts of Madhya Pradesh. The data were analyzed using SPSS. Settings: Outpatient Departments of district hospital, civil hospital, community health centre, and primary health centre of the eight selected districts of Madhya Pradesh. Results: A total of 561 OPD patients were included in the study to know their perceptions towards the public health facilities, choosing health facility, registration process, basic amenities, perception towards doctors and other staff, perception towards pharmacy and dressing room services. It was found that most of the respondents were youth and having low level of education. The major reason of choosing the public health facility was inexpensiveness, infrastructure, and proximity of health facility. Measuring patient satisfaction were more satisfied with the basic amenities at higher health facilities compared to lower level facilities. It was also observed that the patients were more satisfied with the behavior of doctors and staff at lower health facilities compared to higher level facilities.
  10,155 796 8
Study of prevalence and response to needle stick injuries among health care workers in a tertiary care hospital in Delhi, India
Rahul Sharma, SK Rasania, Anita Verma, Saudan Singh
January-March 2010, 35(1):74-77
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.62565  PMID:20606925
Background: Because of the environment in which they work, many health care workers are at an increased risk of accidental needle stick injuries (NSI). Objective: To study prevalence and response to needle stick injuries among health care workers. Materials and Methods: Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: A tertiary care hospital in Delhi. Participants: 322 resident doctors, interns, nursing staff, nursing students, and technicians. Statistical Analysis: Proportions and Chi-square test. Results: A large percentage (79.5%) of HCWs reported having had one or more NSIs in their career. The average number of NSIs ever was found to be 3.85 per HCW (range 0-20). 72 (22.4%) reported having received a NSI within the last month. More than half (50.4%) ascribed fatigue as a cause in their injury. Most of the injuries (34.0%) occurred during recapping. In response to their most recent NSI, 60.9% washed the site of injury with water and soap while 38 (14.8%) did nothing. Only 20 (7.8%) of the HCWs took post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) against HIV/AIDS after their injury. Conclusions: The occurrence of NSI was found to be quite common. Avoidable practices like recapping of needles were contributing to the injuries. Prevention of NSI is an integral part of prevention programs in the work place, and training of HCWs regarding safety practices indispensably needs to be an ongoing activity at a hospital.
  10,068 697 24
Biomedical waste management: A study of knowledge, attitude, and practices in a tertiary health care institution in Bijapur
MC Yadavannavar, Aditya S Berad, PB Jagirdar
January-March 2010, 35(1):170-171
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.62591  PMID:20606945
  9,494 770 9
Prevalence and determinants of overweight and obesity among adolescent school children of South Karnataka, India
M Shashidhar Kotian, S Ganesh Kumar, Suphala S Kotian
January-March 2010, 35(1):176-178
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.62587  PMID:20606948
  8,451 979 13
Epidemiological study of road traffic accident cases from Western Nepal
Badrinarayan Mishra, Nidhi D Sinha, SK Sukhla, AK Sinha
January-March 2010, 35(1):115-121
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.62568  PMID:20606934
Background: Road Traffic Accident (RTA) is one among the top five causes of morbidity and mortality in South-East Asian countries. [1] Its socioeconomic repercussions are a matter of great concern. Efficient addressing of the issue requires quality information on different causative factors. Research Question: What are different epidemiological determinants of RTA in western Nepal? Objective: To examine the factors associated with RTA. Study Design: Prospective observational. Setting: Study was performed in a tertiary healthcare delivery institute in western Nepal. Participants: 360 victims of RTA who reported to Manipal Teaching hospital in one year. Study Variables: Demographic, human, vehicular, environmental and time factors. Statistical analysis: Percentages, linear and logarithmic trend and Chi-square. Results: Most of the victims i.e. 147 (40.83%) were young (15 to 30 years); from low i.e. 114 (31.66%) and mid i.e. 198 (55%) income families and were passengers i.e. 153 (42.50%) and pedestrians i.e. 105 (29.16%). Sever accidents leading to fatal outcome were associated with personal problems (P<0.01, χ2 - 8.03), recent or on-day conflicts (P<0.001, χ2 - 18.88) and some evidence of alcohol consumptions (P<0.001, χ2 - 30.25). Increased prevalence of RTA was also noticed at beginning i.e. 198 (55%) and end i.e. 69 (19.16%) of journey; in rainy and cloudy conditions (269 i.e. 74.72%) and in evening hours (3 to 7 p.m. 159 i.e. 44.16%). Out of 246 vehicles involved; 162 ( 65.85%) were old and ill maintained. The contributions of old vehicle to fatal injuries were 33 (50%). Head injury was found in 156 (43.33 %) cases and its associated case fatality rate was 90.90%. In spite of a good percentage receiving first aid i.e. 213 (59.16%) after RTA; there was a notable delay (174 i.e. 48.33% admitted after 6 h) in shifting the cases to the hospitals. The estimated total days lost due to hospital stay was 4620 with an average of 12.83 days per each case. Conclusion: Most of the factors responsible for RTA and its fatal consequences are preventable. A comprehensive multipronged approach can mitigate most of them.
  7,228 736 13
Journal, association, and public health in medical colleges
Rajesh Kumar
January-March 2010, 35(1):1-2
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.62543  PMID:20606909
  7,262 355 1
Concept of essential medicines and rational use in public health
Sitanshu Sekhar Kar, Himanshu Sekhar Pradhan, Guru Prasad Mohanta
January-March 2010, 35(1):10-13
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.62546  PMID:20606912
  6,713 573 4
Prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in rural areas of Davanagere
BY Yuvaraj, MR Nagendra Gowda, AG Umakantha
January-March 2010, 35(1):138-141
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.62578  PMID:20606939
Objective: To study the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in the rural areas of Davanagere. Type of Study: Cross-sectional community-based study. Setting: Villages belonging to six sectors of the Davanagere Taluk. Materials and Methods: General population above 18 years. Methodology: A community-based sample was chosen by a multistage sampling technique. Subjects were screened for hypertension by a house-to-house survey. Subjects with systolic blood pressure more than 140 and diastolic blood pressure more than 90 mm of Hg, on hypertensive treatment, and history of hypertension were classified as hypertensives. The data thus obtained was compiled and analyzed. Results: The prevalence rate of hypertension in the study population was 18.3% (95% CI, 16.7-19.9%). Prevalence of hypertension was more in males 19.1% (95% CI, 16.7-21.5%) than in females 17.5% (95% CI, 14.9-20.1%); 11.6%, 5.6%, and 1.2% of the total subjects had Grade I, Grade II, and Grade III, respectively. Only 33.8% of them were aware of their hypertensive status. Hypertensives of 32.1% were on treatment, and 12.5% adequately controlled their BP. About 6.9% of the total hypertensives had severe hypertension. Statistical Analysis: Proportions, One way Analysis of Variance, Chi-square test.
  5,615 719 7
Newborn care practices in urban slums of Lucknow city, UP
Pratibha Gupta, VK Srivastava, Vishwajeet Kumar, Savita Jain, Jamal Masood, Naim Ahmad, JP Srivastava
January-March 2010, 35(1):82-85
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.62570  PMID:20606927
Objectives: To study the knowledge and practices related to newborn care in urban slums of Lucknow city, UP, and to identify critical behaviors, practices, and barriers that influence the survival of newborns. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study in urban slums of Lucknow city, UP, included 524 women who had a live birth during last 1 year preceding data collection. Data were analyzed using statistical software SPSS 10.0 for windows. Results: Study findings showed that about half of the deliveries took place at home. Majority (77.1%) of the mothers believed that baby should be bathed with warm water and dried with clean cloth and 79.7% mothers practiced it. Only 36.6% mothers initiated breast-feeding within 1 h of birth and 30.2% initiated after 1 day. The mothers who have not given colostrum to their baby, in majority the reason was customs. Conclusion: In majority of cases, correct knowledge and correct practices regarding newborn care were lacking among mothers and this should be promoted through improved coverage with existing health services.
  5,329 628 2
Use of 'Mishri' A smokeless form of tobacco during pregnancy and its perinatal outcome
Asha Pratinidhi, Sudesh Gandham, Aparna Shrotri, Archana Patil, Shrikar Pardeshi
January-March 2010, 35(1):14-18
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.62547  PMID:20606913
Background: Use of 'Mishri' (Tobacco containing teeth cleaning powder) is common in the central and southern part of India. Objectives: To study the effects of Mishri use on the fetus during pregnancy and the perinatal outcome, and stopping its use. Materials and Methods: All apparently healthy pregnant women were enrolled at 20 weeks of gestation from rural Maharashtra, India. Information related to use and giving up of Mishri, previous obstetrical history, current pregnancy, delivery and outcome during the perinatal period were recorded. Appropriate tests of significance were applied. Results: Out of 705 enrolled pregnant women, 218 (30.9%) were using Mishri. The proportion of women with complications during the previous perinatal period, complaints and complications during the current pregnancy/delivery and the number of stillbirths were significantly more among Mishri users. A relative risk of abnormal delivery was 2.7 for the users. In spite of counseling, 153 women never stopped the use of Mishri and gave birth to babies weighing on an average 169.9 gm less (statistically significant) than babies born from the group that never used it. Babies of 28.8% who stopped/reduced consumption of Mishri were significantly benefited. Conclusions: The improvement seen in babies born to 28.8% mothers who stopped/reduced consumption of Mishri by 32 weeks during the current pregnancy is of paramount importance in the developing world for primary prevention of low birth weight.
  4,961 394 12
Awareness and attitude of the general public toward HIV/AIDS in coastal Karnataka
B Unnikrishnan, Prasanna P Mithra, T Rekha, B Reshmi
January-March 2010, 35(1):142-146
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.62580  PMID:20606940
Objective: To assess the awareness and attitude of the general public toward people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Mangalore, a city in Coastal Karnataka. Design: Community-based cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: The study population included 630 individuals aged 18 years and above. The information was collected using a semi structured pre-tested questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of 24 questions regarding awareness of the modes of transmission of HIV/AIDS (nine questions) and questions to assess the attitude toward People Living With HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) (15 questions). Statistical package SPSS version 11.5 was used, Chi-square test was conducted and P< 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: About one-third of the study population thought that one could get infected by merely touching an HIV positive individual. Approximately 45% stated that they would dismiss their maid on finding out her HIV positive status. About 54% were willing to undergo the HIV test. The respondents with less than secondary school education had a discriminatory attitude toward HIV positive people, with regard to them deserving to suffer, dismissing a HIV positive maid, hesitating to sit next to a HIV positive person in the bus, divorcing the infected spouse, and willingness to get tested for HIV, which was found to be statistically significant. Conclusion: Stigma among the general public was mostly due to fear of contracting the illness. Stigma does exist to significant degrees among the educated people, which was suggested by about 45% of the participants being willing to undergo the HIV test. There is a need for greater attempts toward making information regarding HIV/AIDS available to every individual of the society.
  4,301 424 10
The effect of education and awareness on the Quality-of-Life in postmenopausal women
Sedigheh Forouhari, Marjan Khajehei, Marziyeh Moattari, Mitra Mohit, Mozhgan Safari Rad, Haleh Ghaem
January-March 2010, 35(1):109-114
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.62563  PMID:20606933
Objectives: Women are one of the most important parts of the family and society, and community health is dependent on provision of the needs of this group. Menopause is one of the most critical stages of life among women. One of the aims of health services for all of the people in the 21 st century is improvement of the quality-of-life. In menopausal women, the term quality-of-life incorporates its physical symptoms such as hot flushes, night sweats and vaginal mucosa dryness. We set out this study in order to evaluate the effect of education on the quality-of-life and the improvement of health standards in menopausal women. Materials and Methods: Sixty-two women aged 44-55 referring to and academic outpatient clinic in Shiraz were selected by simple random sampling, and allocated in two groups. Data was collected using a modified Hildich questionnaire on quality-of-life in menopause stage. Quality-of-life of the subjects (vasomotor, psychosocial, physical and sexual aspects) were evaluated prior to and 3 months after educational intervention. Results: Mean quality-of-life score in study and control groups, prior to education, was 81.7 and 74.8; changing to 75.3 and 75.8, respectively three months after intervention. The study group showed a significant improvement in their quality-of-life (p = 0.001). A significant difference was seen between groups in terms of changing quality-of-life after intervention (p = 0.001). Conclusions: Appropriate training to menopausal women improves their quality-of-life and promotes their health.
  4,306 403 6
Prescription analysis of pediatric outpatient practice in Nagpur city
Anuja A Pandey, Subhash B Thakre, Prakash R Bhatkule
January-March 2010, 35(1):70-73
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.62564  PMID:20606924
Background: Medication errors are probably one of the most common types of medical errors, as medication is the most common health-care intervention. Knowing where and when errors are most likely to occur is generally felt to be the first step in trying to prevent these errors. Objective: To study prescribing patterns and errors in pediatric OPD prescriptions presenting to four community pharmacies across Nagpur city and to compare the prescription error rates across prescriber profiles. Materials and Methods: The study sample included 1376 valid pediatric OPD prescriptions presenting to four randomly selected community pharmacies in Nagpur, collected over a period of 2 months. Confirmed errors in the prescriptions were reviewed and analyzed. The core indicators for drug utilization studies, mentioned by WHO, were used to define errors. Results: The 1376 prescriptions included in the study were for a total of 3435 drugs, prescribed by 41 doctors. Fixed dose formulations dominated the prescribing pattern, many of which were irrational. Prescribing by market name was almost universal and generic prescriptions were for merely 254 (7.4%) drugs. The prescribing pattern also indicated polypharmacy with the average number of drugs per encounter of 2.5. Antibiotics were included in 1087 (79%) prescriptions, while injectable drugs were prescribed in 22 (1.6%) prescriptions. The prescription error score varied significantly across prescriber profiles. Conclusion: The findings of our study highlight the continuing crisis of the irrational drug prescribing in the country.
  4,331 375 5
Awareness of menstrual abnormality amongst college students in urban area of Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria
OA Esimai, GO Omoniyi Esan
January-March 2010, 35(1):63-66
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.62559  PMID:20606922
Background: Disturbances of menstrual bleeding are major social and medical problem for women and account for high percentage of gynecological visit. Objectives: The objective of the study was to document menstrual abnormalities experienced by female college students, their awareness and health seeking behavior. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was undertaken, 400 students were selected using stratified sampling technique and interviewed using semi-structured self-administered questionnaire. Inferential statistical analysis such as Chi-square test and logistic regressions were carried out. Results: The mean age at menarche was 14.18 years. Irregular menstrual cycles were reported in 9.0%. Dysmenorrhea was present in 62.5%, and 12.5% reported school absenteeism. Students' awareness of menstrual abnormalities was poor (29%). A few of them (10.5%) decided to seek help for menstrual abnormalities. The awareness of students on menstrual abnormalities was significantly influenced by their age (OR = 2.33, P = 0.03); however, age at menarche and level of study did not influence their awareness (OR = 0.45, P = 0.24 and OR = 1.42, P = 0.12). History of dysmenorrheal (OR = 10.2, P = 0.001) and academic disturbance (OR = 5.45, P = 0.001) had significant influence on the health seeking behavior of the students. Conclusion: There was a general lack of information about menstrual issues and when to seek help. There is a need to educate female college students about menstrual issues in order to improve their health seeking behavior as regards menstrual abnormalities.
  4,249 384 7
Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B surface antigen, antibodies to the Hepatitis C virus, and human immunodeficiency virus in a hospital-based population in Jaipur, Rajasthan
Smita Sood, Shirish Malvankar
January-March 2010, 35(1):165-169
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.62588  PMID:20606944
Background: Hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and HIV infections are a serious global and public health problem. To assess the magnitude and dynamics of disease transmission and for its prevention and control, the study of its seroprevalence is important. A private hospital catering to the needs of a large population represents an important center for serological surveys. Available data, at Rajasthan state level, on the seroprevalence of these bloodborne pathogens is also very limited. Objective: A study was undertaken to estimate the seroprevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibodies to hepatitis C (anti-HCV Ab) and human immunodeficiency virus (anti-HIV Ab) in both the sexes and different age groups in a hospital-based population in Jaipur, Rajasthan. Materials and Methods: Serum samples collected over a period of 14 months from patients attending OPDs and admitted to various IPDs of Fortis Escorts Hospital, Jaipur, were subjected within the hospital-based lab for the detection of HBsAg and anti-HCV Ab and anti-HIV Ab using rapid card tests. This was followed by further confirmation of all reactive samples by a microparticle enzyme immunoassay (Abbott AxSYM) at Super Religare Laboratories (formerly SRL Ranbaxy) Reference Lab, Mumbai. Results: The seroprevalence of HBsAg was found to be 0.87%, of anti-HCV Ab as 0.28%, and of anti-HIV Ab as 0.35%. Conclusion: The study throws light on the magnitude of viral transmission in the community in the state of Rajasthan and provides a reference for future studies.
  4,093 339 10
Health status of workers engaged in the small-scale garment industry: How healthy are they?
Tushar Kanti Saha, Aparajita Dasgupta, Arindam Butt, Onkarnath Chattopadhyay
January-March 2010, 35(1):179-182
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.62584  PMID:20606949
  4,001 327 5
A community-based cervical cancer screening program among women of Delhi using camp approach
Pragya Sharma, Manju Rahi, Panna Lal
January-March 2010, 35(1):86-88
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.62576  PMID:20606928
Background: Cervical cancer is the commonest malignancy among women in developing countries. Cytological screening (Pap smear) have been claimed to reduce incidence and mortality of carcinoma cervix significantly for which sensitization of women is required through community-based approach. Objectives: To find out number of cervical cancer cases among patients reporting to a general health care camp through screening program and study the prevalence of perceived morbidity and its confirmation. Settings: Cross-sectional study among women attending cancer awareness camps. Materials and Methods: A total of 435 women attending cancer awareness camps were screened for carcinoma cervix. The findings of history and clinical examination were recorded. Pap smears of all the symptomatic patients were collected and cytological diagnosis was confirmed by a pathologist. Results and Conclusions: The perceived gynecological morbidity was observed to be 59.8%. The smear of the women who were suspected of carcinoma on clinical examination was confirmed to be the cases of carcinoma-in-situ (7.8%) and high-grade neoplasia (2.9%) on laboratory investigations. The findings of the study highlight the utility and need of cancer cervix screening among the women at regular intervals through camp approach in the community.
  3,371 443 2
A study on prevalence of chewing form of tobacco and existing quitting patterns in urban population of Jamnagar, Gujarat
Urvish Joshi, Bhavesh Modi, Sudha Yadav
January-March 2010, 35(1):105-108
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.62560  PMID:20606932
Background: Awareness towards tobacco hazards has increased with time but its role alone towards cessation is questionable. With widespread menace of tobacco in developing countries like India, not much tobacco chewing prevalence and their quitting patterns data are available in urban Saurashtra region. Objectives: 1. To find out prevalence of various forms of chewing tobacco and quitting attitudes in urban Jamnagar. 2. To study quitting patterns in relation with age of habit initiation, family background and habit duration. Materials and Methods: It was a cross-sectional study involving 2513 individuals as study population by 30-cluster sampling method. The study was carried out between June 2007 and March 2008. Pre-set, pre-tested questionnaire was used for interview purpose and the statistical analysis was done on proportion basis. Results: About 37.2% of study population was ever-tobacco-chewers; 32.9% of them were current-chewers and 4.3% were quitters. Approximately 28.4% of current-consumers were willing to quit. Mawa-masala (63.7%) and Gutka (57.6%) were preferred forms of chewing tobacco and 57.5% of the current-chewers chewed tobacco six to eight times a day. Tobacco initiation age between 20 and 30 years was commoner among quitters (84.2%), while a little younger in current-consumers (76.5%). About 58.3% quitters and 74.0% chewers showing willingness to quit had not consumed tobacco for more than five years, 63.8% of current-chewers had a family member consuming tobacco. With initiation of health problems, 72.2% subjects quit and 55.5% of them already knew about health hazards. Conclusions: Every 4 out of 10 residents was found to be exposed to chewing tobacco. With Mawa-masala and Gutka being the predominant forms, habit onset in late adolescence, years of consumption and family exposure seem to be hampering quitting. Awareness about tobacco hazards alone does not appear to be resulting in successful quitting.
  3,307 481 6
Association of sleep duration with arterial blood pressure profile of Gujarati Indian adolescents
Wasim A Shaikh, Minal Patel, SK Singh
January-March 2010, 35(1):125-129
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.62571  PMID:20606936
Background and Aim: Recently, National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey-1 data analysis found short sleep duration as a risk factor for hypertension in the U.S. population. However, since ethnic differences exist in the aetiopathogenesis of diseases, the current study was undertaken to study the effect of sleep duration on the blood pressure profile of Gujarati Indian adolescents. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 489 Gujarati Indian adolescents of age group 16-19 years studying in school and colleges in the local population. The participants were assessed for their sleep duration, physical activity status, body composition, blood pressure profile and cardiovascular reactivity. The sleep duration was reported by the subjects as the number of hours they slept on most of the nights in a week over the last one year. The observations of the study were then analyzed after grouping them into: 1) Adequate Sleep Duration at Night, ASDN (≥ 7 hrs) and 2) Inadequate Sleep Duration at Night, ISDN (<7 hrs) groups. Student's unpaired t-test was used to study if any significant difference (P< 0.05) existed between the groups. Results: No significant difference was found in Systolic blood pressure, Diastolic blood pressure, Pulse pressure and Mean arterial pressure between the ASDN group and the ISDN group. Physical activity status also did not differ between the two groups. However, adolescents of ISDN group showed a significantly higher level of adiposity and cardiovascular reactivity as compared to adolescents of ASDN group. Conclusion: Although short sleep duration is associated with a higher level of adiposity and cardiovascular reactivity in Gujarati Indian adolescents, it does not affect the resting blood pressure profile of these adolescents. However, longitudinal studies would be required to observe if the changes in adiposity and cardiovascular reactivity affect these adolescents in later life.
  3,406 270 9
School-based intervention to promote healthy lifestyles in Sousse, Tunisia
Imed Harrabi, Jihene Maatoug, Mehdi Gaha, Raoudha Kebaili, Rafika Gaha, Hassen Ghannem
January-March 2010, 35(1):94-99
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.62581  PMID:20606930
Background: Integrated actions against selected risk factors (i.e. smoking, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet) can lead to the reduction of major chronic diseases. Objective: To implement and evaluate a school-based intervention program to prevent cardiovascular risk factors among children. Materials and Methods: Design: Pre- test post-test quasi experimental design with a control group. Setting: Four secondary schools in Sousse, Tunisia. Intervention: The overall intervention program lasted for a school year and incorporated educative actions concerning tobacco use, physical activity, and healthy diet. Results: Globally, knowledge, behaviors, and intentions concerning smoking improved in both groups between baseline and the end of the study, particularly in the intervention group. Nutrition knowledge, behaviors, and intentions improved in both groups between baseline and final stage, particularly in the intervention group. At the final stage, there was an increase in the proportion of children walking to and from school in the intervention group. There was also an increase in the percentage of children with intention of practicing sport in the future particularly in the intervention group. There were no significant differences in BMI after the intervention neither in intervention nor in control groups. At the end of the study, the incidence of overweight and obesity was similar to that at baseline. Conclusions: This pilot study has demonstrated the potential of school as a suitable setting for the promotion of healthy lifestyles in children. The study resulted in substantial improvements concerning knowledge, behaviors, and intentions in the intervention group.
  3,158 434 6
Prevalence of tobacco use among power loom workers - A cross-sectional study
Zaki Anwar Ansari, S Nafees Bano, M Zulkifle
January-March 2010, 35(1):34-39
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.62551  PMID:20606917
Background: Tobacco use is a major public health problem globally. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), tobacco is the second most important cause of death in the world. It is currently estimated to be responsible for about 5 million deaths each year worldwide. In India, it is responsible for over 8 lakh deaths every year. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of tobacco use among power loom workers in Mau Aima Town, District Allahabad, UP. Materials and Methods: Five hundred power loom workers were randomly chosen. Out of them 448 workers were interviewed through a questionnaire survey during May-June 2007. Data on demographics, education, and type of work were collected along with details regarding tobacco use and smoking status, duration of the habit, and daily consumption. Prevalence of tobacco chewing and/or bidi and cigarette smoking, and their sociodemographic correlates, were examined. Results: The overall prevalence of tobacco use was 85.9%; the prevalence of smoking and tobacco chewing were 62.28% and 66.07%, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that smoking is more common in the elderly, while chewing gutka (a type of chewing tobacco) is popular among the younger age-groups. Conclusion: The prevalence of tobacco use among power loom workers is very high compared to that in general population. Immediate intervention programs are warranted to reduce the future burden of tobacco-related morbidity among these workers who are already exposed to the highly polluted environment in power loom factories.
  3,164 410 6
Quality assessment of child care services in primary health care settings of Central Karnataka (Davangere District)
Rashmi , B Vijaykumar
January-March 2010, 35(1):24-28
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.62549  PMID:20606915
Background: Infectious disease and malnutrition are common in children. Primary health care came into being to decrease the morbidity. Quality assessment is neither clinical research nor technology assessment. It is primarily an administrative device used to monitor performance to determine whether it continues to remain within acceptable bounds. Aims and Objectives: To assess the quality of service in the delivery of child health care in a primary health care setting. To evaluate client satisfaction. To assess utilization of facilities by the community. Materials and Methods: Study Type: Cross-sectional community-based study. Quality assessment was done by taking 30-50%, of the service provider. Client satisfaction was determined with 1 Immunization and child examination-90 clients each. Utilization of services was assessed among 478 households. Statistical Analysis: Proportions, Likert's scale to grade the services and Chi-square. Results: Immunization service: Identification of needed vaccine, preparation and care was average. Vaccination technique, documentation, EPI education, maintenance of cold chain and supplies were excellent. Client satisfaction was good. Growth monitoring: It was excellent except for mother's education andoutreach educational session . Acute respiratory tract infection care: History, physical examination, ARI education were poor. Classification, treatment and referral were excellent. Client satisfaction was good. Diarrheal disease care: History taking was excellent. But examination, classification, treatment, ORT education were poor. Conclusion: Mothers education was not stressed by service providers. Service providers' knowledge do not go with the quality of service rendered. Physical examination of the child was not good. Except for immunization other services were average.
  2,964 538 -
Isolated systolic hypertension and its determinants - A cross-sectional study in the adult population of Lucknow district in North India
Tanu Midha, MZ Idris, RK Saran, AK Srivastava, SK Singh
January-March 2010, 35(1):89-93
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.62579  PMID:20606929
Objectives: 1) To determine the prevalence of isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) in the adult population of Lucknow district. 2) To study the determinants of ISH especially the relationship with age. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in four randomly selected areas of Lucknow district. A total of 800 subjects, aged 20 years and above, 400 from urban and 400 from rural area of Lucknow district were included in the study. The statistical tools used for analysis were Pearson's Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression. Results: The prevalence of ISH according to JNC-7 criteria was 4.3%, which was 5.1% in men and 3.6% in women. A significant increase in the prevalence of ISH was seen with an increase in age. Multivariate logistic regression analysis of the determinants showed that age, BMI and smoking were significant independent risk factors of ISH. Conclusions: Given the risk of cardiovascular disease associated with ISH, the findings of this study emphasize the need for further research to document the impact of modifiable risk factors of ISH and the effect of hypertension screening and specific health promotion in bringing down the burden of ISH and related cardiovascular morbidity.
  3,017 457 3
Screening for hypertension among older adults: A primary care "High Risk" approach
Jacob John, Jayaprakash Muliyil, Vinohar Balraj
January-March 2010, 35(1):67-69
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.62561  PMID:20606923
Background: Recommendations for early detection and management of elevated blood pressure through opportunistic clinic-based screening may be inadequate for the rural population in India as access to health facilities is limited. Materials and Methods: Sixteen Health Aides (trained primary care workers) were trained to measure blood pressure using a standardized training procedure. Six of those assessed competent in initial evaluation were allotted a stratified random sample of about 150 persons each, 50 years or over, in the village under their care to measure blood pressures during their regular scheduled visits. Results: 14/16 of the health aides (83%) met the stipulated criteria for the simulation study using a module from British Hypertension Society. In the field survey of 920 individuals where 20% of the population was evaluated by a blinded investigator, the weighted Kappa for agreement, using normal, pre-hypertension and hypertension as categories, ranged between 62% and 89%. Only 75/286 (25%) of those detected to be hypertensive knew their status prior to the study. All those detected with hypertension were referred to a physician at a referral facility. 70% of those referred were evaluated at the referral facility and 64% of them initiated on treatment for hypertension within 3 months. Conclusion: Using primary care workers to screen for hypertension through the model suggested here will ensure that the population over 50 years of age will be screened once every 2 years without burdening the worker. This screening process will enable the health system to identify and cater to needs of this vulnerable population.
  2,797 488 3
Providers' knowledge, attitude and dispensing practices of E-Pills in government dispensaries of south district in Delhi, India
Vertika Kishore, Man M Misro, Deoki Nandan
January-March 2010, 35(1):46-51
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.62553  PMID:20606919
Background: South Delhi is one of the well developed districts in the capital with best public health care facilities. Knowledge, attitude and dispensing practices of emergency contraceptive pills (E-pills) were assessed among health care providers of government dispensaries in South Delhi. Study Design: A descriptive epidemiological study. Materials and Methods: Both medical and paramedical (n = 428) providers in 63 government health care facilities were interviewed between August to December 2007 using a semi-structured interview schedule. Results: Among the different categories of the providers, medical officers were observed to be most knowledgeable about E-pills and the pharmacists were the least. The correct prescribed dose of E-pill was known only to 32% of the providers while 49% knew about its right time of intake. Misconceptions and apprehensions for promoting its use were very much prevalent even among medical officers as majority felt that open access to E-pills would increase promiscuity. The dispensing practice of providers was found positively ( P < 0.05) correlated with their knowledge. Training resulted a significant ( P < 0.05) improvement in knowledge, attitude and dispensing practice of the providers. Knowledge and training combined together contributed 35% to the dispensing practice (R 2 = 0.35). Conclusion: Besides knowledge, behavior change communication strategies should form a part of the training curricula of health care providers that would help to improve the dispensing practice of E-pills.
  2,907 344 1
Risk factors for foot ulcers in patients with diabetes mellitus - A short report from Vellore, South India
Reginald Alex, Benjamin Ratnaraj, Blessed Winston, D Nathaniel Samson Devakiruba, Clarence Samuel, Jacob John, Venkata Raghava Mohan, Jasmine Helan Prasad, KS Jacob
January-March 2010, 35(1):183-185
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.62582  PMID:20606950
  2,972 277 1
Medical emergencies in Goa
Sahoo Saddichha, Mukul Kumar Saxena
January-March 2010, 35(1):57-62
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.62555  PMID:20606921
Background: Most emergencies in Goa arise due to road traffic accidents and drowning, which have been compounded by the rise in number of recorded accidents in 2007 to be above 4000. It is believed that 11 people meet with an accident on Goa's roads every day and this is expected to rise by 10% by next year. Similar is the case with drownings and other medical emergencies. We therefore aimed to conduct a cross-sectional survey of medical emergencies and identify various types of emergencies presenting to emergency departments. Materials and Methods: Using a stratified random sampling design, all emergencies presenting to the three government hospitals in Goa, which handle 90% of all emergencies currently, were studied on specially designed data sheets in order to collect data. Emergency medical technicians (ETs) were placed in the Casualty Ward of the medical colleges and they recorded all emergencies on the data sheet. The collected data were then analyzed for stratification and mapping of emergencies. Results: GMC Hospital attended to majority of emergencies (62%), which were mainly of the nature of accidents or assaults (17%) and fever related (17%). Most emergencies were noncritical and about 1% expired. Maximum emergencies also presented from Salcette and Bardez, and occurred among young males in the age group of 19-45 years. Males were also more prone to accidents while females had pregnancies as emergencies. Conclusion: Potential emergency services need to target young males with higher concentrations required in Salcette in South Goa and Bardez in North Goa.
  3,028 192 -
Impact of a simple educational intervention on the knowledge and awareness of tuberculosis among high school children in Vellore, India
Vijayaprasad Gopichandran, Priyankur Roy, Ashwin Sitaram, Karthick , KR John
January-March 2010, 35(1):174-175
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.62589  PMID:20606947
  2,791 368 4
Internal evaluation of national leprosy elimination program in tribal Gujarat
Anjali Singh
January-March 2010, 35(1):130-133
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.62574  PMID:20606937
Background: The government launched a National Leprosy Eradication program in 1983, to eliminate leprosy from India. A Modified Leprosy Elimination Campaign was started with the view to early case detection and treatment. In April 2004, a vertical program of leprosy was merged with the general health services and case detection was conducted by the general health workers in India. Materials and Methods: Internal evaluation of leprosy was done in the Panchmanal district of Gujarat through a rapid survey of the 10 Primary Health Care units in the high and low endemic areas. Active and passive surveillance data and records were verified according to the indicators. Results: Analysis of the data and record verification revealed that there was a decrease in the prevalence rate of leprosy, but it had not reached the elimination status. The MB ratio had decreased, but the child ratio remained consistent for the last five years. The disability ratio had also decreased in five years. Conclusion: The National Leprosy Elimination Program had a favorable impact, but at the same time to reach the elimination status there was a need for more stringent Information, Education, and Communication (IEC) activities to be promoted in the community. Active surveillance should be initiated so that hidden cases are not missed in the community.
  2,772 262 2
Male behavior toward reproductive responsibilities in Sikkim
Yalley Dolma Chankapa, Ranabir Pal, Dechenla Tsering
January-March 2010, 35(1):40-45
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.62552  PMID:20606918
Background: Failure to assess the impact of men's perceptions on reproductive health decisions has weakened reproductive health care programmes. Objectives: We evaluated husbands' knowledge and practices with regard to the use of conventional contraceptives as manifested through reproductive health and sexual decisions. Materials and Methods: A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in a rural setting of Sang PHC and Pakyong PHC area in Sikkim, India. Five hundred and ninety-six currently married men whose names were included in the eligible couple registers were selected by multistage random sampling. Information regarding knowledge and practice of contraceptive use was obtained from the participants by interview. Results: Out of the 596 male participants, the majority (55.87%) opined that they were in favor of using a contraceptive method after one child. Most participants (55.54%) said that their main source of information on contraceptive methods were the government health staff, while 24.84% acknowledged that most of their information came from the mass media. Eighty-two percent reported currently using some kind of the contraceptive method. Condom was used as a temporary method by only 16.27% of the responders, with the permanent method of vasectomy being opted for by only 4.87%. The method most widely used by their partners was the oral contraceptive pill (43.41%), followed by tubectomy (15.77%) and IUD (4.19%). Conclusions: This research found that awareness and prevalence of contraceptive use among married men in a rural community in the East District of Sikkim were quite high. Nevertheless, female contraceptive methods continue to be the dominant method used in the community. Researchers and health care providers often ignore the sociodemographic significance of men and their role in the acceptance of contraceptive practices in the community.
  2,694 313 5
Why do we need to control alcohol use through legislative measures? A south east asia perspective?
Sahoo Saddichha, Narayana Manjunatha, Christoday Raja Jayant Khess
January-March 2010, 35(1):147-152
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.62583  PMID:20606941
Background: Even though prevalence of alcohol use in the world is very high, it has not been brought under legal control in several countries, contrary to other controlled substances like opium, cocaine, cannabis, and so on. Aim: To demonstrate the similarities in both alcohol and opioid dependence by comparing and contrasting the course of clinical dependence for both substances. Patients and Methods: Consecutively admitted patients during the period August 2005 to May 2006, in the Center for Addiction Psychiatry, Central Institute of Psychiatry, Ranchi, India, with ICD-10 (DCR) diagnosis of alcohol dependence syndrome or opioid dependence syndrome were recruited for the study and administered the alcohol or other drug (opioid) section of SSAGA-II, respectively, and the data was entered in the corresponding tally sheet. Results: The total sample size was 150, of which 112 consented to participate. Eighty-one (72%) were alcohol-dependent and 31 (28%) were opioid-dependent. Mean ages of the patients of alcohol dependence for opioid dependence was 35.16 10.2 compared to 26.09 5.65. Mean age of onset of alcohol and opioid use were similar (18.72 6.84 and 20.73 3.93 years, respectively). Patterns of dependence were also similar for both substances, from the first criteria to dependence (0.49 years for alcohol versus 0.64 years for opioids), and from the appearance of the second criteria to dependence (0.24 years versus 0.28 years). Conclusion: This study recommends alcohol to be treated on par with opioids and calls for legislations for the control of alcohol, uniformly, across the world, as a public health policy, on the lines of the Framework Convention for Tobacco Control.
  2,657 230 1
Agreement and concordance regarding reproductive intentions and contraception between husbands and wives in rural Ballabgarh, India
Kapil Yadav, Bir Singh, Kiran Goswami
January-March 2010, 35(1):19-23
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.62548  PMID:20606914
Background: Traditionally, women have been the chief respondents in most demographic and health surveys focusing on family planning; the role of men has been limited. However, in recent years there has been realization of the importance of men's role in family planning. Aims and Objectives: To assess the levels of agreement and concordance between husbands and wives regarding reproductive intentions and contraception. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 200 randomly selected married couples (in the age range of 15-44 years) in village Dayalpur, Haryana. Data pertaining to reproductive intentions and contraception was collected and the level of agreement (kappa statistics) between husbands and wives was calculated. Results: The observed concordance was 67.5% for ideal family size, 84.5% for contraceptive attitude, 88.5% for fertility desire, 93.5% for unmet need, and 97% for report of number of currently living children. The adjusted kappa statistic varied from a low of 0.43 (P ≤ 0.001) (ideal family size) to a high of 0.96 ( P ≤0.001) (number of living children) with contraceptive attitude (0.7) ( P≤0.001), unmet need (0.88) ( P≤ 0.001), and current use of contraception (0.93) ( P ≤0.001) having kappa values in between. Overall, a greater degree of agreement was observed for reproductive health events as compared to family planning attitudes and intentions. An in-depth analysis of the responses in the current study provides further evidence of male domination in decision making. Conclusion: In surveys pertaining to reproductive health events, the wife's response can be taken as proxy for the couple's response, but for assessing family planning attitudes and intentions, there is a need to collect information from husbands and wives separately.
  2,552 306 4
Role of faculty of medical colleges in national health policy and program development
Chandrakant S Pandav
January-March 2010, 35(1):3-6
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.62544  PMID:20606910
  2,440 396 4
Epidemiology of accidents in tile factories of Mangalore city in Karnataka
S Ganesh Kumar, UP Rathnakar, HN Harsha Kumar
January-March 2010, 35(1):78-81
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.62567  PMID:20606926
Background: Occupational accidents are a major point of concern in industries. The academic community should take the first step to address the long-neglected concerns of occupational safety. Objective: To assess the prevalence and pattern of occupational accidents. Materials and Methods: A record-based, cross-sectional study was done in three tile factories of Mangalore city, in Karnataka. A total of 416 workers were analyzed for the year 2004, and data regarding age, sex, job duration, type and nature of injury, body parts involved, and time of injury were collected in a prestructured proforma. Statistical Analysis: Proportions, Chi- square test, Univariate and Multivariate analysis. Results: The overall prevalence rate of accidents was found to be 18.5%. It was found that almost around 86% of the accidents had affected the limbs (upper limb 24.7%, lower limb 61%), around half (52%) of the injuries were contributed by superficial injuries, 40% of accidents were due to stepping/striking against objects and while handling. Hand tools and machinery in motion contributed to around 20% of the accidents. Accidents were more common among the younger age group and less-experienced workers. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that the age group of 30-39 years had an independent significant association with accidents (OR = 0.21, P = 0.04). Conclusion: Accidents in tile industries are an important occupational health problem in this area of the country. There is a need for proper safety training of the workers.
  2,552 225 2
Metabolic syndrome: An occupational perspective
Chitra V Nair
January-March 2010, 35(1):122-124
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.62569  PMID:20606935
Objective: To study the prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome (MS) in an Indian industrial setup and to study disparity in occurrence of MS in a working population based on occupational status. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study of 651 employees who underwent periodic medical examination. The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) definition of MS and International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO)-88 classification of occupations were used. Results: The overall crude prevalence of MS was found to be 18.5%. Nineteen percent of the non-manual workers and 18.3% of the manual workers suffered from MS. The single largest occupational category with MS was ISCO-88 group 1, which included the managers and senior officials. However, no difference was found among the manual and non-manual workers in prevalence of MS.
  2,378 379 2
A comparative study to analyze the cost of curative care at primary health center in Ahmedabad
Neeta Mathur, Geeta Kedia, Atul Trivedi
January-March 2010, 35(1):153-158
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.62585  PMID:20606942
Objectives: To determine the unit cost of curative care provided at Primary Health Centers (PHCs) and to examine the variation in unit cost in different PHCs. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out in three PHCs of Ahmedabad district namely Sanathal, Nandej, and Uperdal, between 1 April, 2006 and 31 March, 2007. For estimating the cost of a health program, information on all the physical and human resources that were basic inputs to the PHC services were collected and grouped into two categories, non-recurrent (capital resources vehicles, buildings, etc.) and recurrent resources (salaries, drugs, vaccines, contraceptives, maintenance, etc.). To generate the required data, two types of schedules were developed, daily time schedule and PHC/SC (Subcenter) information schedule. Results: The unit cost of curative care was lowest (Rs. 29.43) for the Sanathal PHC and highest (Rs. 88.26) for the Uperdal PHC, followed by the Nandej PHC with Rs. 40.88, implying severe underutilization of curative care at the Uperdal PHC. Conclusions: Location of health facilities is a problem at many places. As relocation is not possible or even feasible, strengthening of infrastructure and facilities at these centers can be taken up immediately.
  2,339 288 3
Cost-effectiveness of childbirth strategies for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV among mothers receiving nevirapine in India
Kanchan Mukherjee
January-March 2010, 35(1):29-33
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.62550  PMID:20606916
Background: Mother-to-child transmission of HIV is an important mode of spread of HIV in India. With strategies like caesarian section and nevirapine therapy, this spread has been reduced. However, they have costs attached. In this context, this paper attempts to compare the cost-effectiveness of alternative childbirth strategies among HIV-positive mothers receiving nevirapine. Materials and Methods: Using sentinel surveillance data from three districts in Tamil Nadu, a model was created to test the cost-effectiveness of vaginal delivery against elective caesarian section among mothers receiving nevirapine. Sensitivity analysis was applied to evaluate cost per HIV infection prevented. Results: Vaginal delivery is not only cheaper in HIV-infected mothers receiving nevirapine but also cost-effective as compared to elective caesarian section. The incremental cost for preventing an additional HIV infection through caesarian section was Rs. 76,000. Sensitivity analysis reveals that the findings are robust over a range of HIV transmission probabilities, 0.04-0.14 for vaginal delivery and 0.00-0.02 for caesarian section. Conclusions: From a clinical perspective, the findings suggest that pregnant HIV-infected women receiving nevirapine should consider the benefits of a cheaper and safer vaginal delivery. From an economic perspective, the findings support the strategy of vaginal delivery in mothers receiving nevirapine.
  2,217 393 4
Anthrax: Public health risk in india and socio-environmental determinants
Rajan R Patil
January-March 2010, 35(1):189-190
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.62573  PMID:20606952
  2,302 214 4
Sero-Surveillance to assess immunity to rubella and assessment of immunogenicity and safety of a single dose of rubella vaccine in school girls
Hitt Sharma, Sunil Chowdhari, Tilak Raj Raina, Subodh Bhardwaj, Gajanan Namjoshi, Sameer Parekh
January-March 2010, 35(1):134-137
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.62575  PMID:20606938
Background: Rubella vaccination is not yet included in National Immunization Schedule in India. Serosurvey is frequently used to assess epidemiologic pattern of Rubella in a community. Serosurveys in different parts of India have found that 6-47% of women are susceptible for Rubella infection. The present serosurveillance was conducted in Jammu, India, in two public schools. Objective: To determine serological status of Rubella antibodies of school girls and assessment of immunogenicity and reactogenicity of Rubella immunization in seronegative girls. Materials and Methods: The current study was conducted to determine Rubella serostatus in peripubertal schoolgirls aged 11-18 years and also to assess immunogenicity and safety of Rubella vaccine (R-Vac) of Serum Institute of India Ltd., Pune, in seronegative girls. For screening, pre-vaccination serum Rubella IgG antibodies were determined and to assess immunogenicity of the vaccine, post-vaccination IgG antibodies were compared with pre-vaccination levels. Safety assessment was done for a period of 8 weeks, post-vaccination. Results: A total of 90 (32.7%) seronegative girls were vaccinated. All girls (100%) became seropositive, post-vaccination. Clinically relevant and statistically significant increase in anti-Rubella IgG titres was observed. The adverse events were mild and self-limiting. Conclusions: R-Vac vaccine used in the study demonstrated an excellent safety and immunogenicity profile.
  2,269 231 6
Can the divide be bridged: Overview of life in urban slums in India
Vijay Viswanathan, Shabana Tharkar
January-March 2010, 35(1):198-199
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.62562  PMID:20606955
  2,004 207 3
Reasons for non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy among adult patients receiving free treatment at a tertiary care hospital in Delhi
Vivek Lal, Shashi Kant, Richa Dewan, Sanjay K Rai
January-March 2010, 35(1):172-173
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.62590  PMID:20606946
  1,859 236 2
Prevalence and predictors of environmental tobacco smoke exposure among adolescents in cambodia
Emmanuel Rudatsikira, Seter Siziya, Adamson S Muula
January-March 2010, 35(1):100-104
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.62556  PMID:20606931
Objective: To estimate the prevalence and predictors of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure among nonsmoking adolescents in Cambodia. Materials and Methods: Analysis of data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) conducted in 2003 in Cambodia. Data were analysed to obtain the prevalence of ETS exposure at home and elsewhere by age and gender. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the association between ETS and gender, age, smoking status of parents and friends. Results: 67.1% (64.0, 70.0) males and 67.4% (64.2, 70.5) females reported being exposed to ETS either at home or elsewhere. Adolescents who had one or both smoking parents had a more than three times the odds of ETS exposure at home (OR = 3.71; 95% CI (3.02, 4.57)). Those who had smoking friends were more likely to be exposed to ETS both at home and outside home (OR = 1.74; 95% CI (1.36, 2.24)). The overall proportion of adolescents exposed to ETS outside home was higher than those exposed at home ( P <0.001), suggesting that exposure in public areas was the main form of ETS among adolescents in Cambodia. Conclusions: Exposure to ETS is high among adolescent in Cambodia, which indicates an urgent need for specific measures, policies and regulations to protect nonsmoker Cambodian adolescents both within and outside home.
  1,814 233 5
HIV is down, but not out yet
Rajesh Kumar
January-March 2010, 35(1):7-9
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.62545  PMID:20606911
  1,741 304 2
Hidden psychiatric morbidities and general health status among men who have sex with men and other clients of a sexually transmitted disease clinic of Kolkata: A comparative study
Soumya Deb, Sinjita Dutta, Aparajita Dasgupta, Sarbojit Roy
January-March 2010, 35(1):193-197
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.62566  PMID:20606954
  1,739 158 -
Surveillance of injuries in a tertiary care hospital
SP Suryanarayana, MS Gautham, Mali Manjunath, V Narendranath
January-March 2010, 35(1):191-192
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.62572  PMID:20606953
  1,612 234 3
Air nicotine monitoring study at Chennai, Tamil Nadu to assess the level of exposure to second hand smoke in public places
TS Selvavinayagam
January-March 2010, 35(1):186-188
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.62577  PMID:20606951
  1,617 146 1
Duplicate publications: Time to ring alarm bells
Anurag Chaudhary, Sarit Sharma, Sangeeta Girdhar, Mahesh Satija
January-March 2010, 35(1):199-200
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.62558  PMID:20606956
  1,193 155 -
Ketoki Kapila
January-March 2010, 35(1):201-201
  1,026 107 -
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  2007 - Indian Journal of Community Medicine | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
  Online since 15th September, 2007