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LETTERS TO EDITOR
Modified kuppuswamy's socioeconomic scale: social researcher should include updated income criteria, 2012
Mohan Bairwa, Meena Rajput, Sandeep Sachdeva
July-September 2013, 38(3):185-186
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.116358  PMID:24019607
  41,073 2,027 5
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Menstrual hygiene: How hygienic is the adolescent girl?
A Dasgupta, M Sarkar
April-June 2008, 33(2):77-80
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.40872  PMID:19967028
Background: Menstruation and menstrual practices are still clouded by taboos and socio-cultural restrictions resulting in adolescent girls remaining ignorant of the scientific facts and hygienic health practices, which sometimes result into adverse health outcomes. Objectives: (i) To elicit the beliefs, conception and source of information regarding menstruation among the study population and (ii) to find out the status of menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted among 160 adolescent girls of a secondary school situated in the field practice area of Rural Health Unit and Training Center, Singur, West Bengal, with the help of a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire. Data were analyzed statistically by simple proportions. Results: Out of 160 respondents, 108 (67.5%) girls were aware about menstruation prior to attainment of menarche. Mother was the first informant regarding menstruation in case of 60 (37.5%) girls. One hundred and thirty-eight (86.25%) girls believed it as a physiological process. Seventy-eight (48.75%) girls knew the use of sanitary pad during menstruation. Regarding practices, only 18 (11.25%) girls used sanitary pads during menstruation. For cleaning purpose, 156 (97.5%) girls used both soap and water. Regarding restrictions practiced, 136 (85%) girls practised different restrictions during menstruation. Conclusions: Menstrual hygiene, a very important risk factor for reproductive tract infections, is a vital aspect of health education for adolescent girls. Educational television programmes, trained school nurses/health personnel, motivated school teachers and knowledgeable parents can play a very important role in transmitting the vital message of correct menstrual hygiene to the adolescent girl of today.
  31,917 1,486 21
Health and social problems of the elderly: A cross-sectional study in Udupi Taluk, Karnataka
A Lena, K Ashok, M Padma, V Kamath, A Kamath
April-June 2009, 34(2):131-134
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.51236  PMID:19966960
Background: Change in socio-economic status and various health problems adversely affect an individual's way of life during old age. Objectives: To study the health and social problems of the elderly and their attitude towards life. Materials and Methods : Descriptive study carried out in the Field practice area of the Department of Community Medicine in South India. A total of 213 elderly patients (60 years old and above) who attended the outreach clinics were interviewed using a pre-tested schedule. Findings were described in terms of proportions and percentages to study the socio-economic status of the samples and its correlation to social problems. Results: Around 73% of the patients belonged to the age group of 60-69 years old. Nearly half of the respondents were illiterate. Around 48% felt they were not happy in life. A majority of them had health problems such as hypertension followed by arthritis, diabetes, asthma, cataract, and anemia. About 68% of the patients said that the attitude of people towards the elderly was that of neglect. Conclusions: The results of the study showed that there is a need for geriatric counseling centers that can take care of their physical and psychological needs. The stringent rules for eligibility to social security schemes should be made more flexible to cover a larger population.
  26,876 1,502 11
Sex selection through traditional drugs in rural north India
S Bandyopadhyay, AJ Singh
January-March 2007, 32(1):32-34
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.53390  
Background : Repidly declining sex ratio has highlighted a strong son preference among many societies various methods are employed by people to get a son. Objective: To determine the use pattern of sex selection drugs (SSDs) in rural North India. Methods: An integrated qualitative and quantitative study was conducted in rural North India. A rapid population and hospital based survey of women in their early reproductive life was done in the study area to enlist the respondents. Few SSD samples were collected and analyzed. Results: SSDs were freely available from grocers, chemist shops and specific people in villages. These contained Shivalingi (Bryonia Laciniosa) and Majuphal (Gtuercus infectoria). SSD use rate was 46% and 30% in community based and hospital based studies respectively. Use rate was significantly higher in women who did not have any son. Of the SSD samples and two individual ingredients analyzed by thin layer chromatography, 3 contained testosterone and one progesterone; one ingredient contained testosterone and the other natural steroids. Conclusion: Use of SSDs seems to be very common in North India. Implication of presence of steroids in SSDs needs further evaluation.
  23,011 298 1
Knowledge, attitude, and practices about biomedical waste management among healthcare personnel: A cross-sectional study
Vanesh Mathur, S Dwivedi, MA Hassan, RP Misra
April-June 2011, 36(2):143-145
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.84135  PMID:21976801
Background: The waste produced in the course of healthcare activities carries a higher potential for infection and injury than any other type of waste. Inadequate and inappropriate knowledge of handling of healthcare waste may have serious health consequences and a significant impact on the environment as well. Objective: The objective was to assess knowledge, attitude, and practices of doctors, nurses, laboratory technicians, and sanitary staff regarding biomedical waste management. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Setting: The study was conducted among hospitals (bed capacity >100) of Allahabad city. Participants: Medical personnel included were doctors (75), nurses (60), laboratory technicians (78), and sanitary staff (70). Results: Doctors, nurses, and laboratory technicians have better knowledge than sanitary staff regarding biomedical waste management. Knowledge regarding the color coding and waste segregation at source was found to be better among nurses and laboratory staff as compared to doctors. Regarding practices related to biomedical waste management, sanitary staff were ignorant on all the counts. However, injury reporting was low across all the groups of health professionals. Conclusion: The importance of training regarding biomedical waste management needs emphasis; lack of proper and complete knowledge about biomedical waste management impacts practices of appropriate waste disposal.
  20,027 1,057 9
Essentials of Management by Prof. Harold Koontz and Prof. Heinz Weihrich
S Goel
July-September 2006, 31(3):186-186
Full text not available  [PDF]
  16,884 3,834 -
SHORT ARTICLES
Social classification: The need to update in the present scenario
AK Agarwal
January-March 2008, 33(1):50-51
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.39245  PMID:19966998
  17,821 1,475 14
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Sexual behavior of married young women: A preliminary study from north India
Ajit Avasthi, Rajinder Kaur, Om Prakash, Anindya Banerjee, Lata Kumar, P Kulhara
July-September 2008, 33(3):163-167
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.39677  PMID:19876477
Background: There are significant gaps in the scientific literature concerning female sexual behavior and attitudes surrounding sexuality, which have definitive implications on public health and clinical work. Aim: To study the sexual behavior of young married Indian women. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised 100 consecutive women attending the Department of Pediatrics for the care of noncritical children in a multispecialty, tertiary care teaching hospital setting in North India. Current levels of sexual functioning and satisfaction were assessed by using the Brief Index of Sexual Functioning for Women (BISF-W). All participants were also administered a translated and culturally adapted instrument called Sex Knowledge and Attitude Questionnaire-II (SKAQ-II). Results: Peno-vaginal sex continues to be considered the most desired and actually performed sexual activity for arousal and orgasm, followed by kissing and foreplay. Difficulties while performing sexual activity, in the form of physical problems, were faced by 17% of the participants. The participants displayed adequate sexual knowledge and favorable attitude towards sexuality as measured by SKAQ-II. Conclusion: The present study is a preliminary effort to understand the contemporary female sexual behavior, knowledge and attitude by employing standard instruments. Still further studies are required in this area.
  16,106 845 4
CME
Geriatric health in India: Concerns and solutions
Gopal K Ingle, Anita Nath
October-December 2008, 33(4):214-218
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.43225  PMID:19876492
  13,711 2,262 5
Integrated management of neonatal and childhood illness: An overview
GK Ingle, Chetna Malhotra
April-June 2007, 32(2):108-110
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.35646  
  14,582 1,387 1
"Air pollution in Delhi: Its Magnitude and Effects on Health"
SA Rizwan, Baridalyne Nongkynrih, Sanjeev Kumar Gupta
January-March 2013, 38(1):4-8
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.106617  PMID:23559696
Air pollution is responsible for many health problems in the urban areas. Of late, the air pollution status in Delhi has undergone many changes in terms of the levels of pollutants and the control measures taken to reduce them. This paper provides an evidence-based insight into the status of air pollution in Delhi and its effects on health and control measures instituted. The urban air database released by the World Health Organization in September 2011 reported that Delhi has exceeded the maximum PM10 limit by almost 10-times at 198 μg/m3. Vehicular emissions and industrial activities were found to be associated with indoor as well as outdoor air pollution in Delhi. Studies on air pollution and mortality from Delhi found that all-natural-cause mortality and morbidity increased with increased air pollution. Delhi has taken several steps to reduce the level of air pollution in the city during the last 10 years. However, more still needs to be done to further reduce the levels of air pollution.
  14,176 528 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Awareness and perception regarding eye donation in students of a nursing college in Bangalore
Anita Gupta, Sudhir Jain, Tanu Jain, Karan Gupta
April-June 2009, 34(2):122-125
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.51235  PMID:19966958
Context: Corneal diseases constitute a significant cause of visual impairment and blindness in the developing world. The number of corneal transplants done is far less than the actual requirement in India. This is largely due to the inadequate number of corneas collected. Well-informed nursing students could be expected to influence eye donation rates. Aims: To assess the awareness and perception of 188 first- and second-year nursing students towards eye donation in Bangalore. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional study design. Materials and Methods: A pretested, semi-structured questionnaire. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed using the Epi-Info software package, Version 6.04. Results: The majority (96.8%) of students knew that eyes can be donated after death but only 38.2% knew that the ideal time of donation was within 6 hours of death. Most participants (85.1%) were either willing or had already donated their eyes. Nobility in the act of eye donation was the main motivational force for eye donation according to 85.6% of students. Perceived reasons for not pledging eyes by the students were: the unacceptable idea of separating the eyes from the body (67.9%), lack of awareness (42.8%), objection by family members (28.5%), and unsuitability to donate because of health problem (10.7%). Conclusion: This study revealed that nursing students were well aware of eye donations and most of them were inclined to sign-up for eye donation. The perceived reasons for not donating eyes need to be considered while creating awareness about eye donation in the community. The nursing students could be actively involved as volunteers in eye donation campaigns and they can act as counsellors for eye donors. They can also contribute by participating in creating awareness and motivating people to become eye donors.
  12,509 1,022 5
Disaster management in flash floods in Leh (Ladakh): A case study
Preeti Gupta, Anurag Khanna, S Majumdar
July-September 2012, 37(3):185-190
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.99928  PMID:23112446
Background: On August 6, 2010, in the dark of the midnight, there were flash floods due to cloud burst in Leh in Ladakh region of North India. It rained 14 inches in 2 hours, causing loss of human life and destruction. The civil hospital of Leh was badly damaged and rendered dysfunctional. Search and rescue operations were launched by the Indian Army immediately after the disaster. The injured and the dead were shifted to Army Hospital, Leh, and mass casualty management was started by the army doctors while relief work was mounted by the army and civil administration. Objective: The present study was done to document disaster management strategies and approaches and to assesses the impact of flash floods on human lives, health hazards, and future implications of a natural disaster. Materials and Methods: The approach used was both quantitative as well as qualitative. It included data collection from the primary sources of the district collectorate, interviews with the district civil administration, health officials, and army officials who organized rescue operations, restoration of communication and transport, mass casualty management, and informal discussions with local residents. Results: 234 persons died and over 800 were reported missing. Almost half of the people who died were local residents (49.6%) and foreigners (10.2%). Age-wise analysis of the deaths shows that the majority of deaths were reported in the age group of 25-50 years, accounting for 44.4% of deaths, followed by the 11-25-year age group with 22.2% deaths. The gender analysis showed that 61.5% were males and 38.5% were females. A further analysis showed that more females died in the age groups <10 years and ≥50 years. Conclusions: Disaster preparedness is critical, particularly in natural disasters. The Army's immediate search, rescue, and relief operations and mass casualty management effectively and efficiently mitigated the impact of flash floods, and restored normal life.
  13,131 353 -
CME
Current status of national rural health mission
Suneela Garg, Anita Nath
July-September 2007, 32(3):171-172
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.36818  
  12,021 1,292 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
A study of anemia among adolescent females in the urban area of Nagpur
Sanjeev M Chaudhary, Vasant R Dhage
October-December 2008, 33(4):243-245
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.43230  PMID:19876498
Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of anemia among adolescent females and to study the socio-demographic factors associated with anemia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in an urban area under Urban Health Training Center, Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, Government Medical College and Hospital, Nagpur. A total of 296 adolescent females (10-19 years old) were included in this study. The study took place from October 2002 to March 2003 (6 months). Statistical analyses were done using percentage, standard error of proportion, Chi-square test, and Student's 't' test. Results: The prevalence of anemia was found to be 35.1%. A significant association of anemia was found with socio-economic status and literacy status of parents. Mean height and weight of subjects with anemia was significantly less than subjects without anemia. Conclusions: A high prevalence of anemia among adolescent females was found, which was higher in the lower socio-economic strata and among those whose parents were less educated. It was seen that anemia affects the overall nutritional status of adolescent females.
  11,172 954 3
Prevalence of ischemic heart disease among urban population of Siliguri, West Bengal
Sukanta Mandal, Joyti Bikash Saha, Sankar Chandra Mandal, Rudra Nath Bhattacharya, Manashi Chakraborty, Partha Pratim Pal
January-March 2009, 34(1):19-23
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.44518  PMID:19876450
Objectives: To determine the prevalence of ischemic heart disease and the associated risk factors among the urban population of Siliguri. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of a random sample of the population aged ≥40 years old in the Municipal Corporation area of Siliguri. Study variables were age, sex, occupation, addiction, food habit, physical activity, body mass index, blood pressure, and electrocardiogram change. Results: Out of 250 individuals who took part in this study, 29 (11.6%) had ischemic heart disease (IHD) and 118 (47.2%) had hypertension. Males had a higher (13.5%) prevalence of IHD than females (9.4%). About 5% of the patients had asymptomatic IHD. IHD among the study population is significantly associated with hypertension and smoking.
  10,057 892 10
A study of dysmenorrhea during menstruation in adolescent girls
Anil K Agarwal, Anju Agarwal
January-March 2010, 35(1):159-164
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.62586  PMID:20606943
Research question: What is the prevalence of dysmenorrhea severity and its associated symptoms among adolescent girls? Objectives: (1) To study the prevalence of dysmenorrhea in high school adolescent girls of Gwalior. (2) To study the evidence of severity of the problem with associated symptoms and general health status. Study design: An explorative survey technique with a correlational approach. Setting and Participants: Nine hundred and seventy adolescent girls of age 15 to 20 years, studying in the higher secondary schools (Pre-University Colleges) of Gwalior. Statistical analysis: Percentages, Chi-square test, and Test-Retest Method. Results: The prevalence of dysmenorrhea in adolescent girls was found to be 79.67%. Most of them, 37.96%, suffered regularly from dysmenorrhea severity. The three most common symptoms present on both days, that is,day before and first day of menstruation were lethargy and tiredness (first), depression (second) and inability to concentrate in work (third), whereas the ranking of these symptoms on the day after the stoppage of menstruation showed depression as the first common symptoms. Negative correlation had found between dysmenorrhea and the General Health Status as measured by the Body surface area.
  10,258 662 16
A study of health problems and loneliness among the elderly in Chandigarh
SPS Bhatia, HM Swami, JS Thakur, V Bhatia
October-December 2007, 32(4):255-258
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.37689  
Research Question: What are the health-related problems of the aged and why do they feel lonely? Objective: To study the health-related problems and loneliness among the elderly in different micro-environment groups. Participants: Aged persons of age 65 years and above. Setting: Urban and rural area of Chandigarh. Design: Cross-sectional. Statistical Analysis: t-test and Z test. Results: During the study, it was found that out of the total 361 aged persons of Chandigarh, 311 (86.1%) persons reported one or more health-related complaints, with an average of two illnesses. The illness was higher among the females (59.5%) as compared to males (40.5%). The main health-related problems were disorders of the circulatory system (51.2%), musculoskeletal system and connective tissue (45.7%). It was also found that loneliness was prevalent more in females (72.8%) as compared to males (65.6%). Loneliness was more prevalent among persons who lived alone (92.2%) as compared to those who lived with their spouse (58.9%) or when husband and wife lived with the family (61.4%). It was higher among the widows (85.2%) and widowers (75.8%) who lived with the family as compared to the aged who lived with the spouse (58.9%) and the aged husband and wife who lived with the family (61.4%). Conclusion: Special geriatric services should be started in the hospitals as the majority of the aged have one or more health-related problems. The aged persons should be involved in social activities to avoid loneliness among them.
  9,966 900 2
SHORT ARTICLES
Maternal health-care utilization among women in an urban slum in Delhi
Paras Agarwal, MM Singh, Suneela Garg
July-September 2007, 32(3):203-205
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.36829  
  9,512 1,207 6
CME
E-waste management: As a challenge to public health in India
Monika , Jugal Kishore
July-September 2010, 35(3):382-385
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.69251  PMID:21031101
  10,185 518 8
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Determinants which influence to donate blood voluntarily at a Northeast District of the State of Tamil Nadu, South India
Umakanth Siromani, Thankamony Thasian, Kurusilappattu Gurupachai Selvaraj, Dolly Daniel, Joy J Mammen, Sukesh Chandra Nair, Rita Isaac
October-December 2014, 39(4):250-250
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.143031  PMID:25364151
  10,313 146 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Effect of maternal factors on nutritional status of 1-5-year-old children in urban slum population
A Mittal, J Singh, SK Ahluwalia
October-December 2007, 32(4):264-267
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.37691  
Objective: To study the effect of various maternal factors on the prevalence of underweight and stunting among 1-5-year-old children in urban slum population. Design: Cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in three urban slums of Tripuri Town, Patiala. All 1-5-year children living in these slums were included, whose mother's demographic profile, weight and height were recorded. Results: Out of 482 children who participated in the study, 185 (38.38%) had low weight for age whereas 222 (46.06%) had low height for age. Both kinds of malnutrition were common in females than in males. Prevalence of malnutrition was more where mother's age was less than 20 years. Children of educated mothers were better nourished as compared to illiterate ones. Conclusion: Maternal factors significantly affect a child's nutritional status, thus encouraging the improvement in the social status of women so as to have healthy children and thereby a healthy future.
  9,548 887 6
Measuring malnutrition -The role of Z scores and the composite index of anthropometric failure (CIAF)
N Seetharaman, TV Chacko, SLR Shankar, AC Mathew
January-March 2007, 32(1):35-39
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.53392  
Background : The current WHO recommendation is to use the Z-Score or SD system to grade undernutrition which allows us to measure all the three indices and express the results in terms of Z scores or standard deviation units from the median of the international reference population. Objectives : To estimate the prevalence of undernutrition among under-five children in Coimbatore slums, using the Z-Score system of classification and the recently constructed Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure (CIAF). 2. To compare the Z-Score system with the Indian Academy of Pediatrics (IAP) classification of undernutrition. Methods : Nutritional assessment was done using anthropometry and clinical examination. Children were weighed and measured as per the WHO guidelines on Anthropometry. Epi-Info 2002 software package was used to calculate the Z scores and for statistical analysis. Results : Only 31.4% of the children studied were normal; 68.6% were in a state of "Anthropometric Failure". As per the Z score system, 49.6% were underweight (21.7% severely); 48.4% were stunted (20.3% severely) and 20.2% were wasted (6.9% severely). Whereas, as per IAP criteria, 51.4% were undernourished and 3.2% were severely undernourished. Using Underweight (low weight-for-age) as the only criterion for identifying undernourished children (as done in the Integrated Child Development Services currently) may underestimate the true prevalence of undernutrition, by as much as 21.9%. Conclusions : More widespread use of the Z-Score system is recommended for identifying all the facets of undernutrition. Estimates of the true prevalence of undernutrition must incorporate a composite index of anthropometric failure.
  9,786 627 7
Breast feeding practices and newborn care in rural areas: A descriptive cross-sectional study
K Madhu, Sriram Chowdary, Ramesh Masthi
July-September 2009, 34(3):243-246
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.55292  PMID:20049304
Context: Breastfeeding practices play an important role in reducing child mortality and morbidity. This study was aimed to describe the breastfeeding practices prevalent in rural areas. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to describe the breastfeeding and newborn care practices in rural areas and the secondary objective was to describe the factors affecting the initiation and duration of breastfeeding. Settings and Design: The study was conducted in primary health care center (PHC) that is attached to a medical college in Kengeri, rural Bangalore, Karnataka. Materials and Methods: Mothers with children who were 9 months old who came to the PHC for measles vaccination were included in the study and data was collected using the pre-tested questionnaire on breastfeeding and newborn practices. Results: Our study shows 97% of the mothers initiated breastfeeding, 19% used pre lacteal feeds, 90% had hospital deliveries and 10% had home deliveries, and 50% used a house knife to cut the umbilical cord among home deliveries. Conclusions: This study emphasizes the need for breastfeeding intervention programs especially for the mother during antenatal and postnatal check-ups and practices like discarding the colostrum and early/late weaning are still widely prevalent and need to be addressed.
  8,908 1,324 11
CME
Public health in British India: A brief account of the history of medical services and disease prevention in colonial India
Muhammad Umair Mushtaq
January-March 2009, 34(1):6-14
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.45369  PMID:19876448
  9,373 848 2
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  2007 - Indian Journal of Community Medicine | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
  Online since 15th September, 2007