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Arsenic contamination of ground water and its health impact on population of district of Nadia, West Bengal, India
Debendra Nath Guha Mazumder, Aloke Ghosh, Kunal Kanti Majumdar, Nilima Ghosh, Chandan Saha, Rathindra Nath Guha Mazumder
April-June 2010, 35(2):331-338
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.66897  PMID:20922118
Background: The global health impact and disease burden due to chronic arsenic toxicity has not been well studied in West Bengal. Objective: To ascertain these, a scientific epidemiological study was carried out in a district of the state. Materials and Methods: Epidemiological study was carried out by house-to-house survey of arsenic affected villages in the district of Nadia. A stratified multi-stage design has been adopted for this survey for the selection of the participants. A total number of 2297 households of 37 arsenic affected villages in all the 17 blocks were surveyed in the district. Result: Out of 10469 participants examined, prevalence rate of arsenicosis was found to be 15.43%. Out of 0.84 million people suspected to be exposed to arsenic, 0.14 million people are estimated to be suffering from arsenicosis in the district. Highest level of arsenic in drinking water sources was found to be 1362 μg/l, and in 23% cases it was above 100 μg/l. Majority of the population living in the arsenic affected villages were of low socio-economic condition, inadequate education and were farmers or doing physical labour. Chronic lung disease was found in 207 (12.81%) subjects among cases and 69 (0.78%) in controls. Peripheral neuropathy was found in 257 (15.9%) cases and 136 (1.5%) controls. Conclusion: Large number of people in the district of Nadia are showing arsenical skin lesion. However, insufficient education, poverty, lack of awareness and ineffective health care support are major factors causing immense plight to severely arsenic affected people.
  26 7,564 836
Study of prevalence and response to needle stick injuries among health care workers in a tertiary care hospital in Delhi, India
Rahul Sharma, SK Rasania, Anita Verma, Saudan Singh
January-March 2010, 35(1):74-77
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.62565  PMID:20606925
Background: Because of the environment in which they work, many health care workers are at an increased risk of accidental needle stick injuries (NSI). Objective: To study prevalence and response to needle stick injuries among health care workers. Materials and Methods: Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: A tertiary care hospital in Delhi. Participants: 322 resident doctors, interns, nursing staff, nursing students, and technicians. Statistical Analysis: Proportions and Chi-square test. Results: A large percentage (79.5%) of HCWs reported having had one or more NSIs in their career. The average number of NSIs ever was found to be 3.85 per HCW (range 0-20). 72 (22.4%) reported having received a NSI within the last month. More than half (50.4%) ascribed fatigue as a cause in their injury. Most of the injuries (34.0%) occurred during recapping. In response to their most recent NSI, 60.9% washed the site of injury with water and soap while 38 (14.8%) did nothing. Only 20 (7.8%) of the HCWs took post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) against HIV/AIDS after their injury. Conclusions: The occurrence of NSI was found to be quite common. Avoidable practices like recapping of needles were contributing to the injuries. Prevention of NSI is an integral part of prevention programs in the work place, and training of HCWs regarding safety practices indispensably needs to be an ongoing activity at a hospital.
  24 9,836 690
Menstrual hygiene: How hygienic is the adolescent girl?
A Dasgupta, M Sarkar
April-June 2008, 33(2):77-80
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.40872  PMID:19967028
Background: Menstruation and menstrual practices are still clouded by taboos and socio-cultural restrictions resulting in adolescent girls remaining ignorant of the scientific facts and hygienic health practices, which sometimes result into adverse health outcomes. Objectives: (i) To elicit the beliefs, conception and source of information regarding menstruation among the study population and (ii) to find out the status of menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted among 160 adolescent girls of a secondary school situated in the field practice area of Rural Health Unit and Training Center, Singur, West Bengal, with the help of a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire. Data were analyzed statistically by simple proportions. Results: Out of 160 respondents, 108 (67.5%) girls were aware about menstruation prior to attainment of menarche. Mother was the first informant regarding menstruation in case of 60 (37.5%) girls. One hundred and thirty-eight (86.25%) girls believed it as a physiological process. Seventy-eight (48.75%) girls knew the use of sanitary pad during menstruation. Regarding practices, only 18 (11.25%) girls used sanitary pads during menstruation. For cleaning purpose, 156 (97.5%) girls used both soap and water. Regarding restrictions practiced, 136 (85%) girls practised different restrictions during menstruation. Conclusions: Menstrual hygiene, a very important risk factor for reproductive tract infections, is a vital aspect of health education for adolescent girls. Educational television programmes, trained school nurses/health personnel, motivated school teachers and knowledgeable parents can play a very important role in transmitting the vital message of correct menstrual hygiene to the adolescent girl of today.
  21 36,669 1,647
Community-based randomized controlled trial of non-pharmacological interventions in prevention and control of hypertension among young adults
LG Saptharishi, MB Soudarssanane, D Thiruselvakumar, D Navasakthi, S Mathanraj, M Karthigeyan, A Sahai
October-December 2009, 34(4):329-334
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.58393  PMID:20165628
Context : Hypertension is a major chronic lifestyle disease. Several non-pharmacological interventions are effective in bringing down the blood pressure (BP). This study focuses on the effectiveness of such interventions among young adults. Aims : To measure the efficacy of physical exercise, reduction in salt intake, and yoga, in lowering BP among young (20-25) pre-hypertensives and hypertensives, and to compare their relative efficacies. Settings and Design: The study was done in the urban service area of JIPMER . Pre-hypertensives and hypertensives, identified from previous studies, constituted the universe. The participants were randomized into one control and three interventional groups. Materials and Methods: A total of 113 subjects: 30, 28, 28 and 27 in four groups respectively participated for eight weeks: control (I), physical exercise (II) - brisk walking for 50-60 minutes, four days/week, salt intake reduction (III) - to at least half of their previous intake, and practice of yoga (IV) - for 30-45 minutes/day on at least five days/week. Statistical Analysis Used: Efficacy was assessed using paired t test and ANOVA with Games Howell post hoc test. An intention to treat analysis was also performed. Results : A total of 102 participants (29, 27, 25 and 21 in groups I, II, III and IV) completed the study. All three intervention groups showed a significant reduction in BP (SBP/DBP: 5.3/6.0 in group II, 2.6/3.7 in III, and 2.0/2.6 mm Hg in IV respectively). There was no significant change (SBP/DBP: 0.2/0.5 mmHg) of BP in control group (I). Physical exercise was most effective (considered individually); salt intake reduction and yoga were also effective. Conclusions : Physical exercise, salt intake reduction, and yoga are effective non-pharmacological interventions in significantly reducing BP among young hypertensives and pre-hypertensives. These can therefore be positively recommended for hypertensives. There is also a case to deploy these interventions in the general population.
  19 5,490 731
Poor perinatal care practices in urban slums: Possible role of social mobilization networks
Zulfia Khan, Saira Mehnaz, Najam Khalique, Mohd Athar Ansari, Abdul Razzaque Siddiqui
April-June 2009, 34(2):102-107
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.51229  PMID:19966954
Background: Making perinatal care accessible to women in marginalized periurban areas poses a public health problem. Many women do not utilize institutional care in spite of physical accessibility. Home-based care by traditional birth attendants (TBA) is hazardous. Inappropriate early neonatal feeding practices are common. Many barriers to perinatal care can be overcome by social mobilization and capacity building at the community level. Objectives: To determine the existing perinatal practices in an urban slum and to identify barriers to utilization of health services by mothers. Study Design: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting and Participants: The high-risk periurban areas of Nabi Nagar, Aligarh has a population of 40,000 living in 5,480 households. Mothers delivering babies in September 2007 were identified from records of social mobilization workers (Community Mobilization Coordinators or CMCs) already working in an NGO in the area. A total of 92 mothers were interviewed at home. Current perinatal practices and reasons for utilizing or not utilizing health services were the topics of inquiry. Statistical Analysis: Data was tabulated and analyzed using SPSS 12. Results: Analyses revealed that 80.4% of mothers had received antenatal care. However, this did not translate into safe delivery practices as more than 60% of the women had home deliveries conducted by traditional untrained or trained birth attendants. Reasons for preferring home deliveries were mostly tradition (41.9%) or related to economics (30.7%). A total of 56% of the deliveries were conducted in the squatting position and in 25% of the cases, the umbilical cord was cut using the edge of a broken cup. Although breast-feeding was universal, inappropriate early neonatal feeding practices were common. Prelacteal feeds were given to nearly 50% of the babies and feeding was delayed beyond 24 hours in 8% of the cases. Several mothers had breastfeeding problems. Conclusion: Barriers to utilization of available services leads to hazardous perinatal practices in urban slums.
  17 4,702 633
National rural health mission: Time to take stock
Arun Kumar Sharma
July-September 2009, 34(3):175-182
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.55268  PMID:20049291
  16 9,079 1,418
A study of dysmenorrhea during menstruation in adolescent girls
Anil K Agarwal, Anju Agarwal
January-March 2010, 35(1):159-164
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.62586  PMID:20606943
Research question: What is the prevalence of dysmenorrhea severity and its associated symptoms among adolescent girls? Objectives: (1) To study the prevalence of dysmenorrhea in high school adolescent girls of Gwalior. (2) To study the evidence of severity of the problem with associated symptoms and general health status. Study design: An explorative survey technique with a correlational approach. Setting and Participants: Nine hundred and seventy adolescent girls of age 15 to 20 years, studying in the higher secondary schools (Pre-University Colleges) of Gwalior. Statistical analysis: Percentages, Chi-square test, and Test-Retest Method. Results: The prevalence of dysmenorrhea in adolescent girls was found to be 79.67%. Most of them, 37.96%, suffered regularly from dysmenorrhea severity. The three most common symptoms present on both days, that is,day before and first day of menstruation were lethargy and tiredness (first), depression (second) and inability to concentrate in work (third), whereas the ranking of these symptoms on the day after the stoppage of menstruation showed depression as the first common symptoms. Negative correlation had found between dysmenorrhea and the General Health Status as measured by the Body surface area.
  16 13,174 745
Revitalizing rural health care delivery: Can rural health practitioners be the answer?
Kapil Yadav, Prashant Jarhyan, Vivek Gupta, Chandrakant S Pandav
January-March 2009, 34(1):3-5
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.45368  PMID:19876447
  16 5,286 533
Study on patient satisfaction in the government allopathic health facilities of Lucknow district, India
Ranjeeta Kumari, MZ Idris, Vidya Bhushan, Anish Khanna, Monika Agarwal, SK Singh
January-March 2009, 34(1):35-42
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.45372  PMID:19876453
Background: The outcome of any disease is influenced by the decisions to seek care, timely arrival at appropriate diagnostic and treatment services and the receipt of adequate care from service providers. Satisfaction in service provision is increasingly being used as a measure of health system performance. Satisfaction manifests itself in the distribution, access and utilization of health services. Objectives: To determine the areas and causes of low satisfaction among the patients and suggest methods for improvement. Materials and Methods: Multistage stratified random sampling was used to select the government allopathic health facilities of Lucknow district and systematic random sampling for the selection of the patients for the interview. Results: The accessibility was difficult in 42% patients and waiting time more than 30 min for 62.5% of those attending the tertiary level health facility. The satisfaction with the duration of the outpatient department (OPD) (64.6%) and the presence of signboards (46.6%) was also found to be low. The overall satisfaction regarding the doctor-patient communication was more than 60% at all the levels of health care facilities but that with the examination and consultation was less than 60% at the primary level as compared to more than 80% elsewhere. The most important motivating factor for the visit to the tertiary (48.2%) and secondary level (71.9%, 67.1%) of health facilities was the faith on doctors or health facility. Conclusions: The level of patient satisfaction is severely deficient in several areas and needs improvement for the achievement of optimal health of the people.
  15 8,281 656
Nutritional anemia in young children with focus on Asia and India
Prakash V Kotecha
January-March 2011, 36(1):8-16
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.80786  PMID:21687374
  14 9,755 957
Period prevalence and sociodemographic factors of hypertension in rural Maharashtra: A cross-sectional study
Sampatti Sambhaji Todkar, Venktesh V Gujarathi, Vinay S Tapare
July-September 2009, 34(3):183-187
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.55269  PMID:20049292
Background: Hypertension is most common cardiovascular disease and it account for large proportion of all cardiovascular deaths and disability worldwide. Research Questions: What is the level of prevalence of hypertension in rural area? What are the soociodemographic factors associated with hypertension? Objectives: To find out prevalence of hypertension in rural area. Study Design: A community-based cross-sectional study setting : Rural Health Training Centre Paithan, field practice area of govt. medical college Aurangabad, Maharashtra. Participants: 1297 persons aged 19 years and above. Study Period: June 2005 to December 20 06. Materials and Methods: A house-to-house survey was conducted by the author himself, interviewed the participants by systematic random sampling method, using pretested structured standard questionnaire. Two independent blood pressure (BP) readings were taken in sitting position by visiting each participant at their home. Hypertension was defined as systolic BP more than or equal to 140 mm of Hg or diastolic BP more than or equal to 90 mm of Hg or those individuals currently taking antihypertensive treatment. Statistical Tests: Percentiles, Chi Square test, Chi-Square for linear trend, multiple logistic regression analysis on SPSS software Version 10. Results: Overall prevalence of hypertension in the study subjects was 7.24%. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified various factors significantly associated with hypertension were age, sex, BMI, additional salt intake, smoking, DM, alcohol consumption, and higher socioeconomic status. Conclusions: The overall prevalence of hypertension in study subjects was 7.24%.
  14 8,750 970
Social classification: The need to update in the present scenario
AK Agarwal
January-March 2008, 33(1):50-51
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.39245  PMID:19966998
  14 18,463 1,501
Epidemiological study of road traffic accident cases from Western Nepal
Badrinarayan Mishra, Nidhi D Sinha, SK Sukhla, AK Sinha
January-March 2010, 35(1):115-121
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.62568  PMID:20606934
Background: Road Traffic Accident (RTA) is one among the top five causes of morbidity and mortality in South-East Asian countries. [1] Its socioeconomic repercussions are a matter of great concern. Efficient addressing of the issue requires quality information on different causative factors. Research Question: What are different epidemiological determinants of RTA in western Nepal? Objective: To examine the factors associated with RTA. Study Design: Prospective observational. Setting: Study was performed in a tertiary healthcare delivery institute in western Nepal. Participants: 360 victims of RTA who reported to Manipal Teaching hospital in one year. Study Variables: Demographic, human, vehicular, environmental and time factors. Statistical analysis: Percentages, linear and logarithmic trend and Chi-square. Results: Most of the victims i.e. 147 (40.83%) were young (15 to 30 years); from low i.e. 114 (31.66%) and mid i.e. 198 (55%) income families and were passengers i.e. 153 (42.50%) and pedestrians i.e. 105 (29.16%). Sever accidents leading to fatal outcome were associated with personal problems (P<0.01, χ2 - 8.03), recent or on-day conflicts (P<0.001, χ2 - 18.88) and some evidence of alcohol consumptions (P<0.001, χ2 - 30.25). Increased prevalence of RTA was also noticed at beginning i.e. 198 (55%) and end i.e. 69 (19.16%) of journey; in rainy and cloudy conditions (269 i.e. 74.72%) and in evening hours (3 to 7 p.m. 159 i.e. 44.16%). Out of 246 vehicles involved; 162 ( 65.85%) were old and ill maintained. The contributions of old vehicle to fatal injuries were 33 (50%). Head injury was found in 156 (43.33 %) cases and its associated case fatality rate was 90.90%. In spite of a good percentage receiving first aid i.e. 213 (59.16%) after RTA; there was a notable delay (174 i.e. 48.33% admitted after 6 h) in shifting the cases to the hospitals. The estimated total days lost due to hospital stay was 4620 with an average of 12.83 days per each case. Conclusion: Most of the factors responsible for RTA and its fatal consequences are preventable. A comprehensive multipronged approach can mitigate most of them.
  13 7,142 731
Clinical manifestations and trend of dengue cases admitted in a tertiary care hospital, Udupi district, Karnataka
Ashwini Kumar, Chythra R Rao, Vinay Pandit, Seema Shetty, Chanaveerappa Bammigatti, Charmaine Minoli Samarasinghe
July-September 2010, 35(3):386-390
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.69253  PMID:21031102
Background: India is one of the seven identified countries in the South-East Asia region regularly reporting dengue fever (DF)/dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) outbreaks and may soon transform into a major niche for dengue infection in the future with more and more new areas being struck by dengue epidemics. Objective: To study the clinical manifestations, trend and outcome of all confirmed dengue cases admitted in a tertiary care hospital. Study Design: Record-based study conducted in a coastal district of Karnataka. Required data from all the laboratory confirmed cases from 2002 to 2008 were collected from Medical Records Department (MRD) and analyzed using SPSS 13.5 version. Results: Study included 466 patients. Majority were males, 301(64.6%) and in the and in the age group of 15-44 years, 267 (57.5%). Maximum number of cases were seen in 2007, 219 (47%) and in the month of September, 89 (19.1%). The most common presentation was fever 462 (99.1%), followed by myalgia 301 (64.6%), vomiting 222 (47.6%), headache 222 (47.6%) and abdominal pain 175 (37.6%). The most common hemorrhagic manifestation was petechiae 84 (67.2%). 391 (83.9%) cases presented with dengue fever, 41 (8.8%) dengue hemorrhagic fever, and 34 (7.3%) with dengue shock syndrome. Out of 66 (14.1%) patients who developed clinical complications, 22 (33.3%) had ARDS and 20 (30.3%) had pleural effusion. Deaths reported were 11(2.4%). Conclusion: Community awareness, early diagnosis and management and vector control measures need to be strengthened, during peri-monsoon period, in order to curb the increasing number of dengue cases.
  13 9,477 895
Cascade screening for β-thalassemia: A practical approach for identifying and counseling carriers in India
Ajit C Gorakshakar, Roshan B Colah
October-December 2009, 34(4):354-356
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.58399  PMID:20165634
  13 3,791 293
Prevalence and determinants of overweight and obesity among adolescent school children of South Karnataka, India
M Shashidhar Kotian, S Ganesh Kumar, Suphala S Kotian
January-March 2010, 35(1):176-178
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.62587  PMID:20606948
  13 8,353 966
Use of 'Mishri' A smokeless form of tobacco during pregnancy and its perinatal outcome
Asha Pratinidhi, Sudesh Gandham, Aparna Shrotri, Archana Patil, Shrikar Pardeshi
January-March 2010, 35(1):14-18
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.62547  PMID:20606913
Background: Use of 'Mishri' (Tobacco containing teeth cleaning powder) is common in the central and southern part of India. Objectives: To study the effects of Mishri use on the fetus during pregnancy and the perinatal outcome, and stopping its use. Materials and Methods: All apparently healthy pregnant women were enrolled at 20 weeks of gestation from rural Maharashtra, India. Information related to use and giving up of Mishri, previous obstetrical history, current pregnancy, delivery and outcome during the perinatal period were recorded. Appropriate tests of significance were applied. Results: Out of 705 enrolled pregnant women, 218 (30.9%) were using Mishri. The proportion of women with complications during the previous perinatal period, complaints and complications during the current pregnancy/delivery and the number of stillbirths were significantly more among Mishri users. A relative risk of abnormal delivery was 2.7 for the users. In spite of counseling, 153 women never stopped the use of Mishri and gave birth to babies weighing on an average 169.9 gm less (statistically significant) than babies born from the group that never used it. Babies of 28.8% who stopped/reduced consumption of Mishri were significantly benefited. Conclusions: The improvement seen in babies born to 28.8% mothers who stopped/reduced consumption of Mishri by 32 weeks during the current pregnancy is of paramount importance in the developing world for primary prevention of low birth weight.
  12 4,844 390
Prevalence of bronchial asthma in Indian children
Ranabir Pal, Sanjay Dahal, Shrayan Pal
October-December 2009, 34(4):310-316
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.58389  PMID:20165624
Background: The prevalence of childhood bronchial asthma and allergic disease has increased in developed countries. Studies have identified asthma among Indian children. Still, there is paucity of information on the overall prevalence of childhood asthma in India. Objective: To assess time trends and the overall prevalence rate of bronchial asthma among Indian children. Materials and Methods: Literature search for data sources was done through an extensive search in indexed literatures and website-based population survey reports. Fifteen epidemiological studies were identified on the development of asthma in Indian children from 300 potentially relevant articles. A broad criterion to define both allergic and non-allergic descriptions of asthma in Indian children was formed. Moreover, in the absence of universally accepted criteria by reporting of prevalence by researchers, weighted average data was considered during calculations of prevalence rates, irrespective of the criteria for diagnosis. Statistical analyses used were mean and median. Results: Wide differences in samples, primary outcome variables, lack of consistency in age category, rural-urban variation, criteria for positive diagnosis, and study instruments confounded the outcome variables. The mean prevalence was 7.24 ± SD 5.42. The median prevalence was 4.75% [with IQR = 2.65 - 12.35%]. Overall weighted mean prevalence was found to be 2.74. Childhood asthma among children 13 - 14 years of age was lower than the younger children (6 - 7 years of age). Urban and male predominance with wide inter-regional variation in prevalence was observed. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that the burden of bronchial asthma in Indian children is higher than was previously understood.
  12 7,579 674
Feeding practices of children in an urban slum of Kolkata
Sima Roy, Aparajita Dasgupta, Bobby Pal
October-December 2009, 34(4):362-363
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.58402  PMID:20165637
  12 3,819 531
Health and social problems of the elderly: A cross-sectional study in Udupi Taluk, Karnataka
A Lena, K Ashok, M Padma, V Kamath, A Kamath
April-June 2009, 34(2):131-134
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.51236  PMID:19966960
Background: Change in socio-economic status and various health problems adversely affect an individual's way of life during old age. Objectives: To study the health and social problems of the elderly and their attitude towards life. Materials and Methods : Descriptive study carried out in the Field practice area of the Department of Community Medicine in South India. A total of 213 elderly patients (60 years old and above) who attended the outreach clinics were interviewed using a pre-tested schedule. Findings were described in terms of proportions and percentages to study the socio-economic status of the samples and its correlation to social problems. Results: Around 73% of the patients belonged to the age group of 60-69 years old. Nearly half of the respondents were illiterate. Around 48% felt they were not happy in life. A majority of them had health problems such as hypertension followed by arthritis, diabetes, asthma, cataract, and anemia. About 68% of the patients said that the attitude of people towards the elderly was that of neglect. Conclusions: The results of the study showed that there is a need for geriatric counseling centers that can take care of their physical and psychological needs. The stringent rules for eligibility to social security schemes should be made more flexible to cover a larger population.
  11 28,944 1,614
Teenage pregnancy: A socially inflicted health hazard
Bratati Banerjee, GK Pandey, Debashis Dutt, Bhaswati Sengupta, Maitraeyi Mondal, Sila Deb
July-September 2009, 34(3):227-231
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.55289  PMID:20049301
Background: Early marriage and confinement are contributing factors to high maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. Objective: To assess the magnitude of the problem of teenage pregnancy and its complications. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based cohort study was undertaken over 4 months among women admitted to a rural hospital in West Bengal. The study cohort comprised of teenage mothers between 15-19 years old and a control cohort of mothers between 20-24 years old. Data included demographic variables, available medical records, and complications viz. anemia, preterm delivery, and low birth weight. Anemia was defined as a hemoglobin level below 10 gm% during the last trimester of pregnancy, preterm delivery was defined as occurring within 37 weeks of gestation, and low birth weight was defined as babies weighing less than 2500 grams at birth. Result: Teenage pregnancy comprised 24.17% of total pregnancies occurring in the hospital during the study period. The study group had 58 subjects and the control group had 91 subjects. The prevalence of anemia was significantly higher ( P <0.05) in the women in the teenage group (62.96%) than in the women in the control group (43.59%). However, severe anemia with a hemoglobin level below 8 gm% was only found in the control group. Preterm delivery occurred significantly more ( P <0.001) in the study group (51.72%) than in the control group (25.88%). The incidence of low birth weight was significantly higher ( P <0.0001) among the group of teenagers (65.52%) than among the women in the control group (26.37%). Not a single newborn was above 3 kg in the study group, while none were below 1.5 kg in the control group. The mean birth weight was 2.36 kg in the study group and 2.74 kg in the control group; the difference was strongly significant ( P <0.001). Conclusion: The study shows that anemia, preterm delivery, and low birth weight were more prevalent among teenagers than among women who were 20-24 years old. This indicates the need for enhancing family welfare measures to delay the age at first pregnancy, thereby reducing the multiple complications that may occur in the young mother and her newborn baby.
  11 9,098 797
Breast feeding practices and newborn care in rural areas: A descriptive cross-sectional study
K Madhu, Sriram Chowdary, Ramesh Masthi
July-September 2009, 34(3):243-246
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.55292  PMID:20049304
Context: Breastfeeding practices play an important role in reducing child mortality and morbidity. This study was aimed to describe the breastfeeding practices prevalent in rural areas. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to describe the breastfeeding and newborn care practices in rural areas and the secondary objective was to describe the factors affecting the initiation and duration of breastfeeding. Settings and Design: The study was conducted in primary health care center (PHC) that is attached to a medical college in Kengeri, rural Bangalore, Karnataka. Materials and Methods: Mothers with children who were 9 months old who came to the PHC for measles vaccination were included in the study and data was collected using the pre-tested questionnaire on breastfeeding and newborn practices. Results: Our study shows 97% of the mothers initiated breastfeeding, 19% used pre lacteal feeds, 90% had hospital deliveries and 10% had home deliveries, and 50% used a house knife to cut the umbilical cord among home deliveries. Conclusions: This study emphasizes the need for breastfeeding intervention programs especially for the mother during antenatal and postnatal check-ups and practices like discarding the colostrum and early/late weaning are still widely prevalent and need to be addressed.
  11 9,716 1,441
Non-pharmacological interventions in hypertension: A community-based cross-over randomized controlled trial
Hema Subramanian, M Bala Soudarssanane, R Jayalakshmy, D Thiruselvakumar, D Navasakthi, Ajit Sahai, LG Saptharishi
July-September 2011, 36(3):191-196
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.86519  PMID:22090672
Background: Hypertension is the most prevalent non-communicable disease causing significant morbidity/mortality through cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and renal complications. Objectives: This community-based study tested the efficacy of non-pharmacological interventions in preventing/controlling hypertension. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-over randomized controlled trial (RCT) of the earlier RCT (2007) of non-pharmacological interventions in hypertension, conducted in the urban service area of our Institute. The subjects, prehypertensive and hypertensive young adults (98 subjects: 25, 23, 25, 25 in four groups) were randomly allotted into a group that he/she had not belonged to in the earlier RCT: Control (New Group I), Physical Exercise (NG II)-brisk walking for 50 to 60 minutes, three to four days/week, Salt Intake Reduction (NG III) to at least half of their previous intake, Yoga (NG IV) for 30 to 45 minutes/day, five days/week. Blood pressure was measured before and after eight weeks of intervention. Analysis was by ANOVA with a Games-Howell post hoc test. Results: Ninety-four participants (25, 23, 21, 25) completed the study. All three intervention groups showed significant reduction in BP (SBP/DBP mmHg: 5.3/6.0 in NG II, 2.5/2.0 in NG III, and 2.3/2.4 in NG IV, respectively), while the Control Group showed no significant difference. Persistence of significant reduction in BP in the three intervention groups after cross-over confirmed the biological plausibility of these non-pharmacological interventions. This study reconfirmed that physical exercise was more effective than Salt Reduction or Yoga. Salt Reduction, and Yoga were equally effective. Conclusion: Physical exercise, salt intake reduction, and yoga are effective non-pharmacological methods for reducing blood pressure in young pre-hypertensive and hypertensive adults.
  11 4,646 659
Cash incentives for institutional delivery: Linking with antenatal and post natal care may ensure 'Continuum of care' in India
Chandrakant Lahariya
January-March 2009, 34(1):15-18
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.45370  PMID:19876449
  10 6,030 798
Prevalence of ischemic heart disease among urban population of Siliguri, West Bengal
Sukanta Mandal, Joyti Bikash Saha, Sankar Chandra Mandal, Rudra Nath Bhattacharya, Manashi Chakraborty, Partha Pratim Pal
January-March 2009, 34(1):19-23
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.44518  PMID:19876450
Objectives: To determine the prevalence of ischemic heart disease and the associated risk factors among the urban population of Siliguri. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of a random sample of the population aged ≥40 years old in the Municipal Corporation area of Siliguri. Study variables were age, sex, occupation, addiction, food habit, physical activity, body mass index, blood pressure, and electrocardiogram change. Results: Out of 250 individuals who took part in this study, 29 (11.6%) had ischemic heart disease (IHD) and 118 (47.2%) had hypertension. Males had a higher (13.5%) prevalence of IHD than females (9.4%). About 5% of the patients had asymptomatic IHD. IHD among the study population is significantly associated with hypertension and smoking.
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* Source: CrossRef
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  2007 - Indian Journal of Community Medicine | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
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