Year : 2006 | Volume
: 31 | Issue : 1 | Page : 39--40
Epidemiology of pulmonary tuberculosis in rural Aligarh
Dept. Preventive & Social Medicine, Govt. Medical College, Bhavnagar, Gujarat, India
Q H Khan
Dept. Preventive & Social Medicine, Govt. Medical College, Bhavnagar, Gujarat
|How to cite this article:|
Khan Q H. Epidemiology of pulmonary tuberculosis in rural Aligarh.Indian J Community Med 2006;31:39-40
|How to cite this URL:|
Khan Q H. Epidemiology of pulmonary tuberculosis in rural Aligarh. Indian J Community Med [serial online] 2006 [cited 2013 May 26 ];31:39-40
Available from: http://www.ijcm.org.in/text.asp?2006/31/1/39/54938
Tuberculosis is not only medical problem, but social and economic problem as well  . Tuberculosis globally claims more than 3 millions lives every year and more then 8 millions new cases develop annually. More than 98% of tuberculosis cases related deaths and 96% of cases occur were reported to decline. The reversal of trend in increase of T.B. cases in USA first appeared in 1986 attributable to a large degrees to AIDS  . In India, at any part of time, 4 out of 1000 persons of age 5 yrs. and above are sputum +Ve for AFB (Acid fast bacillus). 16 out of 1000 persons have radiological active sputum-V e disease  .
After the National sample survey (1958)  , no survey at National level has been conducted. The information on impact of National Tuberculosis control program can be determined by local surveys. Such surveys will help in finding local prevalence and social factors which might help in proper implementation of tuberculosis control program in rural areas. Hence present survey was carried out at Rural Health Training Center (RHTC) Jawan to find out the load of pulmonary tuberculosis and different epidemiological factors related to disease.
Material and Methods
The present cross sectional study was conducted in registered villages under RHTC, Jawan of the department of community medicine, J.N. Medical College. A.M.U., Aligarh from January 21 st 1994 to January 20 th 1995. Jawan block consists of 110 villages (population 1,75,020) out of which 9 villages (population 13,684) are registered with RHTC. All the 10047 persons aged 10 yrs. and above residing in registered villages were screened.
The study was carried out by house to house visit and all families in each registered village were included. In each house all the persons 10 yrs. and above age group were screened for tuberculosis. A detailed history and physical examination was carried out (general examination including recording of weight and systemic examination of respiratory system). Information was collected on pretested proforma. Socio economic status was judged by modified Prasad classification with price index correction. The cases diagnosed clinically were confirmed by relevant investigations like, sputum examination for AFB, X-Ray chest (PA) view and sputum culture for AFB. Persons were found to be sputum +Ve for AFB on direct microsopic examination known as cases of pulmonary tuberculosis. Those persons who were sputum - Ve for AFB on direct microscopic examination but they were showing radio-opaque shadows in lung fields on X-ray chest (PA) view known as suspects of pulmonary tuberculosis.
Results and Discussion
[Table 1] reveals that prevalence rate of tuberculosis rose with age. National Sample Survey conducted by ICMR  described increase in prevalence rate of it along with increase in age. The prevalence rate was slightly higher (15.83/1000) in males than females (14.26/1000). ICMR (1958)  in India have also reported higher prevalence in males.
Among the occupational groups, the prevalence was 19.45/ 1000 in agriculture workers & laboures and it was 7.11/1000 in business and professional groups. This phenomenan of higher prevalence of tuberculosis in agriculture workers and labourers may be ascribed to poor living condition. Higher prevalence rate (21.88/1000) was observed in lower socioeconomic class. ICMR (1958)  also reported similar observation. The more prevalence in low-socio-economic class might be due to ignorance, poverty and closed proximity of positive cases in vicinity as well as with in the family.
In the present study prevalence rate was 18.0/1000 in illiterates and nil in graduates. Chattopahyay  remarked that there was no difference in prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis between literate and illiterates.
The prevalence of tuberculosis was more in persons residing in over crowded houses (17.40/1000) and 8.74/1000 in persons residing in non over crowded houses. ICMR (1958)  also observed similar findings in its study.
[Table 2] shows that the prevalence was 33.46/1000 in smokers while it was 6.80/1000 in non smokers. This difference was statistically significant. Susan et al  described that the current and former cigarette smokers had a risk of tuberculosis about 30-50% more than that of never smokers. Chattopadhyay  also reported similar observation.
Apart from smoking, alcohol may be a risk factor for tuberculosis in present study. It was observed that the prevalence of tuberculosis was (24.41/1000) in alcoholics in comparison to non alcoholics (13.79/1000). Susan et al  also reported a significant relation between alcohol cosumption and pulmonary tuberculosis in their study, heavy drinkers were twice as likely to develop tuberculosis as those with no regular alcohol consumption.
Dr. Mohd-Yunus, Dr. Asifuzzaman Khan, Professor Aziz Khan.
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