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    Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
April-June 2017
Volume 42 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 65-121

Online since Wednesday, April 26, 2017

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EDITORIAL COMMENTARY  

Challenging times for public health towards attaining sustainable development goals p. 65
K Sujatha Rao
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.205210  PMID:28553019
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CME Top

Zika virus: Can India win the fight? p. 69
Tulika Singh
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.205221  PMID:28553020
Zika virus is an emerging arbovirus of public health importance transmitted by Aedes mosquito which also transmits dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever. The disease has been spreading at an alarming rate in Africa, Pacific Islands, and the Americas. Given the expansion of environments where mosquitoes can live and breed, facilitated by urbanization and globalization, there is potential for major urban epidemics of Zika virus disease to occur globally. World Health Organization (WHO) has declared Zika virus disease to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). Our failed attempts to control dengue epidemics in the past call for concern and we need to be to prepared to fight Zika virus before it arrives at our doors.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Improving access to institutional delivery through Janani Shishu Suraksha Karyakram: Evidence from rural Haryana, North India p. 73
Harshal R Salve, Lena Charlette, Ankita Kankaria, Sanjay K Rai, Anand Krishnan, Shashi Kant
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.205223  PMID:28553021
Background: In India, Janani Shishu Suraksha Karyakaram (JSSK) was launched in the year 2011 to assure cashless institutional delivery to pregnant women, including free transport and diet. Objective: To assess the impact of JSSK on institutional delivery. Materials and Methods: A record review was done at the primary health care facility in Faridabad district of Haryana from August 2010 to March 2013. Focus group discussion/ informal interviews were carried out to get an insight about various factors determining use / non-use of health facilities for delivery. Results: Institutional delivery increased by almost 2.7 times (197 Vs 537) after launch of JSSK (p < 0.001). For institutional deliveries, the most important facilitator as well as barrier was identified as ambulance service under JSSK and pressure by elders in the family respectively. Conclusions: JSSK scheme had a positive impact on institutional deliveries. It should be supported with targeted intervention designed to facilitate appropriate decision-making at family level in order to address barriers to institutional delivery.
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From policy to practice: lessons from Karnataka about implementation of tobacco control laws p. 77
Pragati B Hebbar, Upendra Bhojani, John Kennedy, Vishal Rao
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.205212  PMID:28553022
Background: Tobacco use accounts for eight to nine lakh adult deaths annually in India. India enacted a national legislation “Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Act, 2003” (COTPA) to protect health of non-smokers and reduce tobacco consumption. However, even a decade after enacting this law, its implementation remains suboptimal and variable across the Indian states. Karnataka has shown leadership on this front by enacting a state law and implementing COTPA at (sub-) district levels. We, therefore, aim to analyze COTPA implementation processes in Karnataka to understand how COTPA can be effectively implemented. Methods: We developed a case study of COTPA implementation in Karnataka using reports from health, police, education, and transport departments as well as government orders and media reports related to COTPA. We analyzed these data to map and understand the role played by the government agencies in COTPA implementation. We used the proportion of the districts reporting COTPA violations, the number of COTPA violations cases reported, and the proportion of schools reporting compliance with COTPA as proxy measures for COTPA implementation. Results: We found that five government agencies (police, education, health, transport, and urban development) played a major role in COTPA implementation. All the police districts reported COTPA violations with 59,594 cases in a year (April 2013–March 2014). Three of the district anti-tobacco cells and two of the transport divisions reported 1130 and 14,543 cases of COTPA violations, respectively, in the same year. In addition, 84.7% of schools complied with signage requirements of COTPA. COTPA reporting was made part of the reporting systems within health, police, and education departments. The health department created awareness on tobacco harms and COTPA. Conclusions: COTPA implementation in Karnataka was made possible through integrating COTPA implementation within structure/functions of five government agencies.
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Process evaluation of communitisation programme in public sector health facilities, Mokokchung district, Nagaland, 2015 p. 81
Aonungdok Tushi, Prabhdeep Kaur
DOI:10.4103/ijcm.IJCM_202_15  PMID:28553023
Background: Public sector health facilities were poorly managed due to a history of conflict in Nagaland, India. Government of Nagaland introduced “Nagaland Communitisation of Public Institutions and Services Act” in 2002. Main objectives of the evaluation were to review the functioning of Health Center Managing Committees (HCMCs), deliver health services in the institutions managed by HCMC, identify strengths as well as challenges perceived by HCMC members in the rural areas of Mokokchung district, Nagaland. Materials and Methods: The evaluation was made using input, process and output indicators. A doctor, the HCMC Chairman and one member from each of the three community health centers (CHC) and four primary health centers (PHC) were surveyed using a semi-structured questionnaire and an in-depth interview guide. Proportions for quantitative data were computed and key themes from the same were identified. Results: Overall; the infrastructure, equipment and outpatient/inpatient service availability was satisfactory. There was a lack of funds and shortage of doctors, drugs as well as laboratory facilities. HCMCs were in place and carried out administrative activities. HCMCs felt ownership, mobilized community contributions and managed human resources. HCMC members had inadequate funds for their transport and training. They faced challenges in service delivery due to political interference and lack of adequate human, material, financial resources. Conclusions: Communitisation program was operational in the district. HCMC members felt the ownership of health facilities. Administrative, political support and adequate funds from the government are needed for effective functioning of HCMCs and optimal service delivery in public sector facilities.
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Nutritional status of preschool children in Andaman and Nicobar Islands and food insecurity, food groups, and nutrient consumption among population p. 88
Sathya P Manimunda, Attayuru P Sugunan
DOI:10.4103/ijcm.IJCM_249_15  PMID:28553024
Background: Childhood undernutrition is a public health concern in India. But on such a serious issue, there are no data available from the Union Territory of Andaman and Nicobar (A and N) Islands. Objectives: Present study was designed to know the prevalence of food insecurity, to estimate food group and nutrient intake among the community, and undernutrition and clinical signs of micronutrient deficiency among the preschool children of A and N islands. Materials and Methods: Multistage random sampling was followed to select the households containing children aged 6-59 months. In the selected households' sociodemographic particulars, Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS), among preschoolers the weight and height were recorded along with the documentation of clinical signs of micronutrient deficiency, morbidities suffered over previous fortnight, and measurement of hemoglobin. Diet survey was carried out in every fourth household. Results: A total of 1259 preschoolers residing in 1082 households were examined, HFIAS was measured in 710 households in Andaman group of islands and diet survey was conducted in 290 households. The prevalence of undernutrition was around 27%, stunting was 36%, and anemia was around 81%. Undernutrition and anemia prevalence were significantly low among Nicobarese children. After adjusting for all the determinants, tribal in domicile had favorable outcome [odds ratio (OR): 0.28 (0.18, 0.43)], while below poverty line family had adverse outcome on undernutrition [OR: 1.72 (1.20, 2.46)]. Conclusion: Though the prevalence of undernutrition is relatively low in the islands, but high prevalence of anemia needs to be addressed. Nicobarese children fare better in almost all indicators of nutritional well-being except for stunting.
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Depression, anxiety and stress among higher secondary school students of Imphal, Manipur p. 94
K Sathish Kumar, Brogen Singh Akoijam
DOI:10.4103/ijcm.IJCM_266_15  PMID:28553025
Introduction: Adolescence is a stressful period due to physical, psychological, sexual changes, and the presence of psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety, and stress at this stage of life is a matter of concern. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalences of depression, anxiety, and stress among higher secondary school students of Imphal and to determine the association between depression, anxiety, and stress and selected variables such as gender, standard, and religion. Materials and methods: From September 2014 to October 2014, a cross-sectional study was conducted among higher secondary school students of Imphal. The sample size was calculated to be 750. Seven schools were randomly selected, and all the students in that school were enrolled in the study. The study tool used was a questionnaire containing DASS (Depression Anxiety Stress Scale) and sociodemographic characteristics. Results: The prevalences of depression, anxiety, and stress among 830 valid respondents were 19.5%, 24.4%, and 21.1%, respectively. In total, 81.6% of the respondents had at least one of the studied disorders and 34.7% of the respondents had all the three negative states. The prevalences of depression, anxiety, and stress were high among females and were significant for anxiety (P = 0.00) and stress (P = 0.04). The prevalences of depression and stress were significantly higher among 12th standard students with P-values of 0.00 and 0.02. Conclusion: The prevalences of depression, anxiety, and stress were high with anxiety and stress significantly higher among females, whereas prevalences of depression and stress were significantly higher among 12th standard students. More studies are recommended to determine the factors leading to these mental disorders.
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A score-based performance assessment of maternal and child health services provided by USHA of Rajkot city p. 97
Ankit M Sheth, Anupam Banerjee, Amiruddin M Kadri, Matib Rangoonwala, Dipeshkumar D Zalavadiya, Niravkumar B Joshi
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.205219  PMID:28553026
Background: Urban Social Health Activists (USHAs) are the grass root health care workers of urban areas. There are 290 USHAs distributed in various Urban Health Centers (UHCs) of Rajkot city. Objectives: To compare the (i) effectiveness of the training received by the USHAs on their knowledge and counseling skills (ii) knowledge and counseling skills of USHAs on the awareness and utilization of Maternal and Child Health (MCH) care services by their beneficiaries. Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 32 USHAs and 416 beneficiaries served by the same USHAs. 32 USHAs serving in the same field practice area for more than two years were randomly selected. The beneficiaries were those mothers who had a child between 1-2 years age, and who had availed their antenatal and postnatal services in the same area. A scoring system was used to assess the knowledge and counseling skills of the USHAs and the knowledge and utilization of services by their beneficiaries. Results: The utilization of health services was significantly more in the beneficiaries who were serviced by USHAs having comparatively better knowledge (72.7% vs. 35.3%) and counseling skills (62.2% vs. 30.6%). The median score for knowledge (41 vs. 30) and counseling skills (20 vs. 16) of the USHAs was found to be more (P < 0.05) in those who had undertaken induction training. Conclusions: Induction training helped the USHAs to improve their knowledge and counseling skills. Utilization of MCH services was more in those areas served by USHAs having better knowledge and counseling skills.
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A ten year audit of maternal mortality: Millennium development still a distant goal p. 102
Anshuja Singla, Shalini Rajaram, Sumita Mehta, Gita Radhakrishnan
DOI:10.4103/ijcm.IJCM_30_16  PMID:28553027
Objective: To assess various causes of maternal mortality over a ten year period Design: Retrospective audit of hospital case records Setting: Tertiary care hospital Population: Pregnant women who expired in the premises of GTB Hospital. Materials and Methods: A retrospective audit of case records of maternal deaths was conducted for a ten year period (January 2005 to December 2014). Results: There were a total of 647 maternal deaths out of 1,16,641 live births. Sixty-eight percent (n = 445) of women were aged 21-30 years, while 10.5% (n = 68) were <20 years of age. The most common direct causes of maternal mortality were preeclampsia/eclampsia in 24.4% (n = 158), obstetric hemorrhage in 19.1% (n = 124) and puerperal sepsis in 14.5% (n = 94). With regards to indirect causes, anemia accounted for 15.3% (n = 99) mortality. There was only 1 (0.1%) mortality because of HIV/AIDS. Other notable causes of maternal mortality were infective hepatitis in 7.1% (n = 46). Tuberculosis, that is a disease of tropical countries, accounted for 3.0% (n = 20) of the total deaths. Conclusion: High maternal mortality in GTB hospital can be due to it being a tertiary hospital with referrals from all neighbouring states. Accessible antenatal care can help prevent these maternal deaths. Female education can be of immense help in dealing with the problem and improving the utilization of public health facilities.
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Role of community in swachh bharat mission. their knowledge, attitude and practices of sanitary latrine usage in rural areas, Tamil Nadu p. 107
R Anuradha, Ruma Dutta, J Dinesh Raja, D Lawrence, J Timsi, P Sivaprakasam
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.205213  PMID:28553028
Background: In most developing countries, open defecation is the 'way of life'. This practice is considered as the most serious health and environmental hazard. Prime Minister of India launched the “Swachh Bharat Mission” to accelerate the efforts for achieving universal sanitation coverage and to put focus on sanitation. Objective: To find the knowledge, attitude and practices of sanitary latrines usage in rural area, Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods: This was a cross sectional study conducted among rural population in Kuthambakkam village, Tamil Nadu. There were a total of 1175 households in Kuthambakkam village. These households were serially numbered and of these a sample of 275 households were selected for the study using simple random sampling technique by lottery method. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information regarding the background characteristics, their knowledge, attitude and practices towards sanitary latrines usage. Descriptive statistics were calculated for background variables, the prevalence of sanitary latrines usage and open air defecation. Association between factors responsible for open air defecation was found by using chi square test. Results: The prevalence of usage of household sanitary latrine and community latrines was 62.5% and 4.3% respectively. The prevalence of open air defecation among the study participants was 33.1%.Significant association was found between low standard of living and open air defecation practice. Conclusions: To solve the problem of underutilization of sanitary latrines, planning and conducting Information Education Communication activities is very essential. Effective political and administrative support is needed to scale up the sanitation program.
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Summer temperature and spatial variability of all-cause mortality in Surat city, India p. 111
SK Rathi, VK Desai, P Jariwala, H Desai, A Naik, A Joseph
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.205216  PMID:28553029
Background: Ample information is available on extreme heat associated mortality for few Indian cities, but scant literature is available on effect of temperature on spatial variability of all-cause mortality for coastal cities. Objective: To assess the effect of daily maximum temperature, relative humidity and heat index on spatial variability of all-cause mortality for summer months (March to May) from 2014 to 2015 for the urban population of Surat (coastal) city. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of the all-cause mortality data with temperature and humidity was performed on a total of 9,237 deaths for 184 summer days (2014-2015). Climatic and all-cause mortality data were obtained through Tutiempo website and Surat Municipal Corporation respectively. Bivariate analysis performed through SPSS. Observations: Mean daily mortality was estimated at 50.2 ± 8.5 for the study period with a rise of 20% all-cause mortality at temperature ≥ 40°C and rise of 10% deaths per day during extreme danger level (HI: > 54°C) days. Spatial (Zone wise) analysis revealed rise of 61% all-cause mortality for Southeast and 30% for East zones at temperature ≥ 40°C. Conclusions: All-cause mortality increased on high summer temperature days. Presence of spatial variation in all-cause mortality provided the evidence for high risk zones. Findings may be helpful in designing the interventions at micro level.
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SHORT COMMUNICATION Top

Improving perinatal health: Are Indian health policies progressing in the right direction? p. 116
Sharad K Singh, Ravinder Kaur, PK Prabhakar, Madhu Gupta, Rajesh Kumar
DOI:10.4103/0970-0218.205220  PMID:28553030
Background: Strategic investments and policy directives of the Indian Government has demonstrated highest degree of political commitment for maternal and child health care. Objectives: To evaluate the impact of the rise in institutional deliveries in India on perinatal mortality. Methods: Hospital delivery rate and perinatal mortality rate (PNMR), reported by Sample Registration System, Registrar General of India, on a representative sample was used. The correlation between relative change in hospital deliveries and PNMR was examined. Results: In rural areas of India, hospital deliveries have increased during 2005–2013 from 24.4 to 69.7% and PNMR has declined from 40 to 28 per 1000 births. At the state level, there was significant correlation between the rise in hospital delivery rate and decline in PNMR (r 0.4, p 0.04). Conclusions: Decline in perinatal rates can be attributed to India's strategic initiatives in health policy and planning for increasing deliveries in hospitals.
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LETTER TO THE EDITOR Top

Leprosy: An urgent need to step up surveillance p. 120
Sathish Dev, Timsi Jain, P Sivaprakasam, J Dinesh Raja
DOI:10.4103/ijcm.IJCM_85_16  PMID:28553031
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