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    Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
March 2020
Volume 45 | Issue 5 (Supplement)
Page Nos. 1-51

Online since Friday, March 20, 2020

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EDITORIAL COMMENTARY  

Zoonotic diseases in India Highly accessed article p. 1
Sanjiv Kumar, Sumant Swain, GS Preetha, BS Singh, Divya Aggarwal
DOI:10.4103/ijcm.IJCM_360_19  
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COMMENTARY Top

Overview of zoonotic diseases in peri-urban areas and introduction to the special issue p. 3
Divya Aggarwal, Sumant Swain, BS Singh, Sanjiv Kumar
DOI:10.4103/ijcm.IJCM_371_19  
Emerging zoonoses are the product of socio economic and anthropogenic environmental changes. As human societies continue to develop, pathogens from animal hosts have continued to spill over into our population However, Peri-urban ecosystems remain neglected in the country. With a subsequent increase in demand for food, there has been an expansion of formal and informal livestock-based food production sectors in these areas. The increasing close contact between animals and humans in both work and living environments creates hot spots in peri-urban areas, thereby increasing vulnerability to zoonotic disease transmission and other health hazards associated with food safety, water, and sanitation-related diseases. This paper explores the efforts made by different research bodies to reduce the prevalence of zoonotic diseases in peri-urban areas.
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One health approach to address zoonotic diseases p. 6
Divya Aggarwal, Anandhi Ramachandran
DOI:10.4103/ijcm.IJCM_398_19  
The world of animals, humans, and environment is interlinked, giving rise to a number of benefits as well as a spread in zoonosis and multifactorial chronic diseases. With the emergence of antimicrobial resistances and environmental pollution, addressing these diseases needs an interdisciplinary and intersectoral expertise. “One Health (OH)” refers to such collaboration between local, national, and global experts from public health, health care, forestry, veterinary, environmental, and other related disciplines to bring about optimal health for humans, animals, and environment. The concept of OH is still in embryonic stage in India and increasingly gaining importance. The Government of India has taken some initiatives to tackle burgeoning problems such as antimicrobial resistance, zoonotic diseases, and food safety using the OH approach, but there are several challenges at the level of implementation. The major bottlenecks in implementing OH include absence of a legal framework to implement OH, poor coordination among different governmental and private agencies, lack of proper surveillance of animal diseases, poor data-sharing mechanism across sectors, and limited budget. Implementing systematic zoonotic surveillance; regulated antibiotic use among humans and animals; development of a zoonotic registry in the country; constitution of a wide network of academic, research, pharmaceutical, and various implementation stakeholders from different sectors is the need of the hour to effectively use OH in order to combat increasing zoonotic diseases.
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Changing role of nursing cadre under emerging zoonotic diseases p. 9
Divya Aggarwal, Sumant Swain, Anandhi Ramachandran, Vijit Chaturvedi, Sanjiv Kumar
DOI:10.4103/ijcm.IJCM_414_19  
With the launch of new Government of India's initiative Ayushman bharat that envisages conversion of all subcenters into health and wellness centers, the role of nursing professionals in primary health care will be undergoing paradigm shift. Nurses are approximately two-third of the population of health workforce in India. Nurses' scope of work has widened with additional roles and responsibilities due to shift in the pattern of burden of diseases. The emergence of zoonotic infectious diseases has further enlarged their responsibilities. The main areas, which need attention, are development of nursing workforce, selection and recruitment, placement as per specialization, and preservice and in-service training related to zoonotic surveillance. This article attempts to discuss the role of nurses under emerging zoonotic disease infections.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Potential risk factors of brucellosis in dairy farmers of peri-urban areas of South West Delhi p. 12
Navita Yadav, Divya Aggarwal
DOI:10.4103/ijcm.IJCM_361_19  
Background: Brucellosis is a bacterial disease caused by various Brucella species, which mainly infect cattle, swine, goats, sheep, and dogs. Humans generally acquire the disease through direct contact with infected animals, by eating or drinking contaminated animal products, or by inhaling airborne agents. The majority of cases are caused by ingesting unpasteurized milk or cheese from infected goats or sheep. Objective: The objective of the study was to identify the exposure to potential risk factors of brucellosis among the dairy farmers of South West Delhi. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in Jhuljhuli village of Najafgarh division in South West Delhi from January 2017 to April 2017. One hundred individuals were selected through snowball sampling method. A semistructured questionnaire was designed to conduct interviews for data collection. Results: On analysis, it was found that only 36% of the respondents get their animals vaccinated regularly. Regarding the treatment of the animals, 70% of the individuals said that they treat their animals on their own. 72% of the individuals' animals had cases of abortion in the last 1 year. 100% of the respondents reported assisting their animals during reproduction without using any protective gear. Almost half (57%) of the respondents consumed raw milk at their home on different occasions. Conclusions: The study concluded in bringing out the contributing risk factors for brucellosis. The study concluded that treating animal infection on their own and helping animals during reproduction without using protective gear, as major contributing risk for brucellosis. Other factors includes, keeping animals in close proximity during sleep, irregular vaccination, etc.
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Knowledge, attitude, and practice about hygiene among livestock keepers in peri-urban area of vadodara district, Gujarat p. 16
Vaibhavi Khadayata, Divya Aggarwal
DOI:10.4103/ijcm.IJCM_362_19  
Background: Zoonoses are considered as an emerging public health problem. To reduce its prevalence, hygiene of animals as well as personal hygiene during milk production cycle is vital. This study has been conducted in the peri-urban areas of Vadodara district. Objective: The objective was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAPs) about hygiene among livestock keepers in the peri-urban area. Materials and Methods: The study design is cross-sectional descriptive in nature mainly based on pretested questionnaires to answer questions on KAP with regard to hygiene among livestock keepers. A total of 100 livestock keepers were randomly selected from the peri-urban area of Vadodara. Results: Among the selected respondents, 28% of participants know that disease can transmit from animal to human. The majority 72% of all interviewed respondents had no knowledge that disease can transmit from animal to human. Only 33% livestock keepers had awareness that zoonotic disease can be prevented. Among all livestock keepers interviewed, about 52% showed positive attitude and 48% showed negative attitude toward hygiene. There was positive impact of good socioeconomic status on the practices about hygiene, as majority of livestock keepers with good practices belong to the upper middle group. Conclusion: This study indicates that education has impact on knowledge about zoonotic disease, its transmission, and how hygiene is important to prevent zoonotic disease. Further, there is a need to increase the awareness about hygiene among livestock keepers with regard to personal, animal, and milk hygiene.
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Assessment of hygienic milking practices and prevalence of bovine mastitis in small dairy farms of peri-urban area of Jaipur p. 21
Akshita Singh, Anandhi Ramachandran
DOI:10.4103/ijcm.IJCM_363_19  
Background: Bovine mastitis is a highly prevalent infectious disease that affects the production and quality of the milk and results in culling of the cattle, leading to severe economic loss. In India, a large number of smallholder urban dairy farmers are in milk production. However, information on their awareness on milk-borne zoonosis and milking hygiene practices remains scarce. Aim: The study aimed to evaluate milk hygiene awareness and practices among the small dairy farms in the peri-urban area of Jaipur. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 30 dairy farms. A total of 80 respondents including the farmers (suppliers), distributors, and customers were surveyed. They were interviewed about their milk hygiene practices and awareness on mastitis using questionnaires and observations. Milk samples were analyzed for somatic cell count. Results: The results of the study showed that all respondents practiced hand milking. Only 80% of the respondents washed udder before milking. Tap water was used for washing utensils. Only 2% of the respondents practice postmilking dipping of teats. Nearly 90% of barns were not cleaned properly. Conclusions: Hygiene practices are of substandard among the suppliers and the distributors. There is a risk of prevalence of bovine mastitis. This indicates that there is a lack of awareness about the risk associated with bovine mastitis and management. Therefore, there is a need to strengthen farmers' awareness on milking hygiene practices and handling of milk, to minimize the likely losses due to rejection of spoiled milk and milk-borne dangers, which may occur due to consumption of contaminated milk.
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Assessment of knowledge and practices of hygienic milk production among dairy farmworkers, Southwest Delhi p. 26
Ikra Ahmed, Sumesh Kumar, Divya Aggarwal
DOI:10.4103/ijcm.IJCM_366_19  
Introduction: India has emerged as the highest milk-producing country in the world, with an annual production of 137.7 million tones (2013–2014). The quality of contaminated milk deteriorates quickly and produces diseases if consumed. Therefore, care has to be taken in production, storage, and transport of milk. Knowledge about hygienic milk production practices is essential for proper health and nutrition. However, an assessment of their knowledge of hygienic milk production practices has not been carried out in a systematic manner. Objective: This study aims at assessing the knowledge and practices of hygienic milk production among small dairy farmers in the peri-urban area of Southwest Delhi. Methodology: This exploratory cross-sectional study is conducted among 60 dairy farmworkers, selected conveniently from Southwest Delhi. Practices and knowledge levels are assessed using a pretested semi-structured questionnaire. Results: The desired outcome indicates the knowledge level of dairy farmworkers regarding clean milk production practices. Conclusion: Knowledge level -It can be observed that 66.6% of the dairy farmworkers belong to category 2 (medium), whereas 13.3% and 20% of dairy farmworkers belong to category 1 (low) and 3 (high), respectively. Practice level –This study indicates that 60% of the dairy farmworkers belong to category 2 (medium), followed by 21.6% and 18.3% of the dairy farmworkers belong to category 1 (low) and 3 (high), respectively.
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Community acceptance of available milk and assessment of its quality in peri-urban area of Southwest Delhi p. 31
Purnima Rai, Sumant Swain, Pankaj Talreja
DOI:10.4103/ijcm.IJCM_367_19  
Background: Milk is considered to be a balanced food rich in fats, proteins, vitamins, and minerals, which is complete nutrition in a balanced proportion. However, most of milk sold in India does not match standards laid down by the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India. Objective: The objective was to understand the perception of community regarding the acceptance of packaged and unpackaged milk, to assess the quality of milk with respect to adulterants, and to assess the difference in the quality of milk at a level of vendor/hawker and end user. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 100 households in the peri-urban area of Kangan Heri, Delhi. A structured questionnaire and checklist were used for data collection. Purposive sampling was used. The analysis was done with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 22. Descriptive statistics and cross tabulation were used. Results: A total of 22.5% respondents preferred packaged milk over unpackaged milk. Only 8% of packaged milk samples contained no adulterant. Majority of the respondents were preferred unpacked milk for daily consumption. Conclusion: Community perceives good taste as traits of good quality milk followed by good smell, digestibility, and color and economical. The presence of neutralizer in packaged milk followed by detergent and urea. There was no difference in the presence of adulterants in packaged milk at the level of end user or vendor. There is a slight difference in the presence of adulterants in unpackaged milk at level of end user.
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Practices that are potential risks to an increase in zoonotic tuberculosis: A cross-sectional study among cattle holders in peri-urban area of Sonipat p. 35
Sonam Barak Lakra, Divya Aggarwal
DOI:10.4103/ijcm.IJCM_370_19  
Background: The main causative agents of bovine tuberculosis (TB) are Mycobacterium bovis and to a lesser extent, Mycobacterium caprae. The zoonotic transmission of these pathogens occurs primarily through close contact with infected cattle or consumption of contaminated animal products such as unpasteurized milk. Objectives: The objective of this study is to assess the association of practices potentially increasing the risk of zoonotic TB (zTB) among cattle holders in the peri-urban area of Sonipat district. Methodology: This study was carried out among 100 cattle holders. The snowball sampling method was used to select the study units. Those who were handling cattle at home for the maximum time were included under the study (one per household). Face-to-face interviews were carried out using a structured questionnaire. The modified Kuppuswamy scale was used for the segregation of risk. Results: Only 4% of participants have heard about zTB and belonged to the middle and upper-middle class. Dietary practices such as consumption of boiled milk and cooked meat, mixed type of milk, meat, and raw milk were found to be 15% (40–49 years), 68% (20–29 years), 3%, and 9% (30–39 years), respectively. Cooked meat was consumed by 15% of participants, of which 12% were of 20–29 years and 3% were of 30–39 years, whereas 3% (20–29 years) population was consuming mixed form of meat. Conclusion: The risky practices such as attending animal fares, treating sick cattle, and contact with stray animal and in dietary practices of milk and meat consumption increase the zTB risk.
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An assessment of knowledge regarding the risk of zoonoses and hygiene practices among females with livestock in South-West Delhi, India: A cross-sectional study p. 38
Priya Chinchwadkar, Pradeep Panda
DOI:10.4103/ijcm.IJCM_382_19  
Introduction: Globally, India is the largest milk producer with highest population of cattle i.e., 134 million cows and 124 million buffalos, with women accounting for 93 per cent of total employment in dairy production. The Indian subcontinent is one of the four global hot-spots at increased risk for emergence of zoonotic diseases. Health hazards occurring due to lack of awareness about the causes and impact of zoonosis on the public health are significant. In addition, fewer efforts are seen in One-Health programs in India. Objective: To assess the knowledge level regarding the risk of zoonoses and hygiene practices among rural female population with livestock. And also to assess the actual status of practices adopted in the small holder dairy farm. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 60 female populations in peri-urban area of Najafgarh, New Delhi. A structured questionnaire and checklist for observing practicing gaps were used for data collection; Knowledge level was calculated with the help of knowledge scores. Snowball sampling was used. The analysis was done with SPSS-(22). Descriptive statistics, one sample t-test, cross tabulation and Chi-square test were used. Results: Out of total score (28), the respondents got a maximum mean score of 11. Majority of respondents (75%) had low knowledge of specific zoonotic diseases and there was an observed gap in practice. Conclusion: 75% of the respondents had low knowledge on specific zoonotic diseases, hence importance should be given on increasing knowledge about the correct handling of the livestock especially in female population through national-programs and strengthening One-Health efforts.
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The fate and management of sick and dying cattle – Consequences on small-scale dairy farmers of peri-urban areas in India p. 43
Shruti Pahwa, Sumant Swain
DOI:10.4103/ijcm.IJCM_384_19  
Background: The livestock plays an important role in the economy of farmers. The mismanagement of sick and dying cattle leads to an increase in sanitation cost of municipalities, incidences of diseases by exposed carcasses, and hence more expenditure on avoidable health catastrophes. Objective: The objective is to study the fate of sick and failing cattle and their detailed management regarding disposal of dead cattle. Materials and Methods: The qualitative research approach was used. The dual strategies of purposive sampling and snowballing were employed to identify potential respondents. The study was conducted 15 in-depth interviews among smallholder dairy farmers, scientists, officials of National Dairy Research Institute (NDRI), municipality officials, and veterinarians in peri-urban areas of Karnal, Haryana, located in North India. Data were analyzed based on the contents of these audio-recorded interviews. The recordings have transcribed and translated. After translation completion, a content analysis was performed manually to identify emerging themes and interconnections. Results: This article highlighted three core themes such as impact of low literacy and awareness levels, role of informal forms of disposal, and preference of informal channels over municipality. Conclusions: There is a gap in current practices and management of sick and dying cattle. Small-scale farmers prefer to dispose their cattle in an informal way. It needs to improve animal welfare by modeling guidelines for disposal of dead cattle and its consequences pertaining to zoonoses.
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Is small scale dairy farming dying out? An In-depth study p. 47
Mansi Jatwani, Sumant Swain
DOI:10.4103/ijcm.IJCM_385_19  
Background: Animal husbandry plays an important role in the Indian economy. Small scale milk producers contribute 62% of the total milk produced in the country. However, the lives and livelihoods of small dairy farmers are becoming vulnerable in India. Objectives: This article tried tried to explore the reasons of decrease in small scale dairy farms. Apart from that this article is also find out what were the challenges faced by small dairy farming families and its influence on animal health. Methods: A qualitative exploratory study was carried out in the peri-urban area of Hodal, Haryana. Purposive and snowball sampling were employed. Twenty-six in-depth interviews were conducted with current small scale dairy farmers, ex small scale dairy farmers, households, and other stakeholders. Results are presented in the form of core and sub-themes evolved during this process. Results: This study revealed that a small scale dairy farmer is present in peri-urban area, but there is a decrease in small scale dairy farming. The major reason is shrinking fringes, access to cattle provender, the tepid interest of future generation, increased cost of cattle, and cattle health. Conclusion: The study recommends that support (in the form of subsidy) should be provided to small scale dairy farmers for accessing land and provender. Awareness about the importance and scope of small scale dairy farming as a stable career opportunity should be spread among the young generation.
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  2007 - Indian Journal of Community Medicine | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
  Online since 15th September, 2007