|Year : 2019 | Volume
| Issue : 5 | Page : 27-29
Oral health status and treatment needs of 12-year-old school children among urban and rural areas of Raichur Taluk, Karnataka, India
Sudarshan Kumar Chinna1, Arun Kumar Acharya2, Rashmi Chinna3
1 Department of Public Health Dentistry, K.L.E. Dental College and Hospital, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Public Health Dentistry, Navodaya Dental College and Hospital, Raichur, Karnataka, India
3 Department of Service Clinic, Government Dental College and Research Institute, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
|Date of Submission||11-Jan-2019|
|Date of Acceptance||28-Aug-2019|
|Date of Web Publication||15-Oct-2019|
Dr. Sudarshan Kumar Chinna
Department of Public Health Dentistry, K.L.E. Dental College and Hospital, Bengaluru, Karnataka
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
| Abstract|| |
Introduction: Oral health is an integral part of general health. Oral health status has a direct impact on general health, and conversely, general health influences oral health. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to assess oral health status and treatment needs of 12-year-old school children among urban and rural areas of Raichur Taluk, Karnataka, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1240 school children in the age group of 12 years from urban (620) and rural (620) areas of Raichur Taluk, Karnataka, India. Oral health status was assessed using the World Oral Health assessment form 1997. Results: The prevalence of caries in urban and rural areas of school children was 63.5% and 64.5%, respectively. The mean decayed teeth, missing teeth, filled teeth, and decay, missing, filled teeth of school children in Raichur Taluk were 1.15 ± 1.20, 0.0, 0.03 ± 0.23, and 1.19 ± 1.21, respectively. Conclusion: This study highlights the need for preventive and curative oral health services and should be made integral to other health programs. Oral health promotion strategies need to be implemented to improve the oral health of primary school children. Health education should be given regarding the prevention of dental caries by maintaining good oral hygiene.
Keywords: Dental caries, oral hygiene, school children, treatment needs
|How to cite this article:|
Chinna SK, Acharya AK, Chinna R. Oral health status and treatment needs of 12-year-old school children among urban and rural areas of Raichur Taluk, Karnataka, India. Indian J Community Med 2019;44, Suppl S1:27-9
|How to cite this URL:|
Chinna SK, Acharya AK, Chinna R. Oral health status and treatment needs of 12-year-old school children among urban and rural areas of Raichur Taluk, Karnataka, India. Indian J Community Med [serial online] 2019 [cited 2020 Feb 21];44, Suppl S1:27-9. Available from: http://www.ijcm.org.in/text.asp?2019/44/5/27/267811
| Introduction|| |
While the eyes may be the window to the soul, our mouth is a window to our body's health. Children who suffer from poor oral health are 12 times more likely to have restricted – activity days than those who do not. More than 50 million school hours are lost annually because of oral health problems which affect children's performance at school and success in later life. Dental caries is a lot of burden to children and also placing financial burden on the care takers. In developing countries, migration of people from rural areas and urbanization brings about changes in lifestyle and dietary habits, which, in turn, can affect the oral health status adversely. The National Commission for Protection of Child Rights team visited the Raichur District on November 2011, to know the malnutrition deaths and other child rights' violations. Raichur District is one of the 30 most backward districts of the country. Raichur District is one of the 30 most backward districts of the country with unhygienic environmental conditions, high disease burden, negligible oral health seeking behavior of the population and non-availability of the medical facilities etc. The objective of the study is to assess oral health status and treatment needs of 12-year-old school children residing in urban and rural areas of Raichur Taluk, Karnataka, India, and also to compare oral health status and treatment needs among these urban and rural school children.
| Materials and Methods|| |
The study was carried out in both urban and rural areas of Raichur Taluk, Karnataka, over a period of 3-month duration. A total of 8002 (4304 boys and 3698 girls) school children in the age group of 12 years were included from 84 schools in urban and 128 schools in rural areas of government, aided, and private (unaided) schools. The study protocol was approved by the Institutional Ethical Committee, Navodaya Dental College and Hospital, Raichur. Prior permission and consent was obtained from the Block Education Officer (BEO) of Raichur Taluk, Karnataka. A pilot study on 30 urban and 30 rural 12-year-old school children was carried out to determine the final sample size within 95% confidence interval. On the basis of prevalence of dental caries, a final sample size was calculated using the following formula.
N = Sample,
Z crit = Z critical value at 95% confidence level = 1.96.
Z1-β= Z value at 95% power = 1.64
P1= Proportion of children with dental caries in urban region (66.7%).
P2= Proportion of children with dental caries in rural region (56.7%).
The estimated final sample size was 611 in each urban and rural area and was rounded off to 620. Twelve-year age group of school children were selected from both urban and rural areas of Raichur Taluk, by multistage sampling method. Urban schools were divided into 5 clusters and rural schools were divided into 19 clusters by the Department of BEO. In each cluster, sampling frames of the government, aided, and unaided schools were prepared and approximately half the numbers of schools were selected using simple random sampling (lottery) method. From the selected schools, a proportionate sample was chosen from the 7th standard by simple random sampling (lottery) method using attendance register as sampling frame (each day 20 children were examined). The prevalence of dental caries, fluorosis, and caries experience was measured. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square test were used.
| Results|| |
Among the 12-year-old children of Raichur Taluk, 54.7% were boys and 45.3% were girls. The percentage of children from rural area had higher oral mucosal conditions than that of urban area, and it was statistically not significant (P = 0.25). The prevalence of fluorosis was higher in 12-year-old children of rural area than that of urban area of Raichur Taluk, and it was statistically significant (P < 0.001) [Table 1]. The percentage of children from rural area had more healthy periodontium than that of urban area, and it was statistically not significant (P = 0.39). The percentage of children from urban area had more bleeding than that of rural area and it was highly significant (P < 0.0001), and the percentage of children from rural area had more calculus than that of urban area and it was highly significant (P < 0.0001) [Table 2]. The prevalence of dental caries was higher among the children of rural area than that of urban area and was statistically not significant [Figure 1]. The mean decayed teeth, missing teeth, filled teeth, and decay, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) of school children in Raichur Taluk were 1.15 ± 1.20, 00, 0.03 ± 0.23, and 1.19 ± 1.21, respectively. Overall, for the 12-year-old school children of Raichur Taluk, 944 (76.1%) of children required treatment and 296 (23.9%) of children were not [Table 3].
|Table 1: Distribution of children according to the presence or absence of dental fluorosis|
Click here to view
|Table 2: Number and percentage of children with healthy periodontal tissues, bleeding, and calculus|
Click here to view
|Table 3: Number and percentage of children requiring treatment in Raichur taluk|
Click here to view
| Discussion|| |
In this study, among 12-year-old children in Raichur Taluk, 2.8% had oral mucosal conditions such as abscess and pigmentation and 97.2% were free from oral mucosal conditions because of lack of literature data, comparison with other studies cannot be done. In this study, the percentage of dental fluorosis (10.6%) was higher than the study conducted in Chennai, India  (2.5%) and Haryana, India  (6.8%). This could be because Raichur District belongs to the endemic zones of fluorosis. Among Raichur children, 86.9% had calculus, higher than those in China  (58.0%) and Thailand  (44.5%). The higher levels of calculus in this study could be due to lack of awareness and poor oral hygiene. The overall prevalence of dental caries was 64.0%. It was 63.5% in the urban area and 64.5% in the rural area, higher than the studies conducted in Bengaluru  (49.2%), Africa  (33.8% urban area and 21.2% rural area), Delhi  (36.3%), Himachal Pradesh, India  (32.6%), Hyderabad, India  (41.4%), and Deoghar (Jharkhand) (32.6%). The caries experience (DMFT) of 12-year-old school children of Raichur (1.19 ± 1.21) was higher than the Hyderabad, India  (0.6 ± 0.08) and Deoghar (Jharkhand) (0.62 ± 1.42). The higher dental caries could be due to majority of children belonged to upper lower class of socioeconomic status who could afford high sugar consumption in the form of tea/milk and sweets/chocolate.
| Conclusion|| |
The study highlights the need for preventive and curative oral health services and need to be implemented to improve the oral health of primary school children. Oral health education should be given and advice regarding continuous dental follow-ups should be made. The World Oral Health Day is celebrated every year on March 20th focussing on the benefits of healthy mouth to promote oral health and reduce overall disease burden. Education department should promote to conduct such programs to create awareness in students, parents, and teachers regarding the importance of oral health. Health-care providers should incorporate oral- and dental health-related topic in school curriculum in future.
Limitations and recommendations
The current study had some limitations and recommendations. Encourage regular periodic dental checkups for children who are at high risk of developing dental caries. Oral health promotion through a well-structured oral health education program can create positive change in awareness for special groups like school children. Implementation of school dental health programs mainly focusing on preventive aspects with inclusion of application of fluoride mouth rinse and tooth brushing is the need of the hour.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Sharma S, Parashar P, Srivastava A, Bansal R. Oral health status of 9 to 12 year old school going children in urban Meerut. Indian J Community Health 2013;25:61-5.
Gift HC, Reisine ST, Larach DC. The social impact of dental problems and visits. Am J Public Health 1992;82:1663-8.
Laroia D, Tikoo SV. Raichur Karnataka Visit Report: National Commission for Protection of Child Rights. New Delhi Publisher; 2012. p. 1-93.
Mahesh Kumar P, Joseph T, Varma RB, Jayanthi M. Oral health status of 5 years and 12 years school going children in Chennai city – An epidemiological study. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2005;23:17-22.
Rao NC, Mehta A. Dentition status and treatment needs of 12 year old school children of Panchkula district, Haryana India. JIDA 2010;4:303-5.
Zhang S, Liu J, Lo EC, Chu CH. Dental and periodontal status of 12-year-old Bulang children in China. BMC Oral Health 2014;14:32.
Petersen PE, Hoerup N, Poomviset N, Prommajan J, Watanapa A. Oral health status and oral health behaviour of urban and rural schoolchildren in Southern Thailand. Int Dent J 2001;51:95-102.
Das UM, Beena JP, Azher U. Oral health status of 6- and 12-year-old school going children in Bangalore city: An epidemiological study. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2009;27:6-8.
] [Full text]
Varenne B, Petersen PE, Ouattara S. Oral health status of children and adults in urban and rural areas of Burkina Faso, Africa. Int Dent J 2004;54:83-9.
Grewal H, Verma M, Kumar A. Prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs amongst the school children of three educational zones of urban Delhi, India. Indian J Dent Res 2011;22:517-9.
] [Full text]
Shailee F, Sogi GM, Sharma KR, Nidhi P. Dental caries prevalence and treatment needs among 12- and 15- year old schoolchildren in Shimla city, Himachal Pradesh, India. Indian J Dent Res 2012;23:579-84.
] [Full text]
Sukhabogi JR, Shekar C, Hameed IA, Ramana I, Sandhu G. Oral health status among 12- and 15-year-old children from government and private schools in Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. Ann Med Health Sci Res 2014;4:S272-7.
Shekhar M, Chakraborthy R, Verma S. Oral Health Status and treatment needs among 12 and 15-year old government and private school children in Deoghar (Jharkhand). J Adv Med Dent Scie Res 2016;4:40-3.
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]