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SHORT COMMUNICATION  
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 44  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 58-61
 

Analyzing the blood bank service quality from Indian blood donors' perspective: An empirical evidence


1 Department of Business Administration, PSIT College of Higher Education, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Amity Institute of English Studies and Research, Amity University, Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India

Date of Submission28-Jul-2018
Date of Acceptance10-Jan-2019
Date of Web Publication12-Mar-2019

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Shantanu Saha
Department of Business Administration, PSIT College of Higher Education, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijcm.IJCM_237_18

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   Abstract 


Objective: The objective of this study is to assess the levels of service quality provided by blood banks from blood donors' perspective and simultaneously judge the opinion of their satisfaction level based on SERVQUAL (service quality) variables, namely Reliability, Assurance, Tangibility, Empathy, and Responsiveness. Materials and Methods: A self-administered and respecified structured SERVQUAL questionnaire is prepared to address expectation and perception of services experienced by blood donors. A total of 280 blood donors' responses were collected by visiting blood banks. Results: The study endorsed all the significant five dimensions affecting the blood donors' expectation with actual service experienced during the exercise of donation. Average of overall service quality index gap is 0.38. Highest gap scores were significantly perceived in “Assurance” (Gap score 0.55) and “Empathy” (Gap score 0.49). In addition, “Tangibles,” “Reliability,” and “Responsiveness” scores are equitable, implying the blood donors' satisfaction level with the blood bank services. Conclusions: This study divulges blood bank's need to dissect and evaluate the level of service quality provided by them, along with consideration to the measurements of service quality gap models for the better fulfillment of blood contributors and retention.


Keywords: Blood, blood bank service quality, expectation of blood donors, perception of blood donors


How to cite this article:
Saha S, Bhattacharya J. Analyzing the blood bank service quality from Indian blood donors' perspective: An empirical evidence. Indian J Community Med 2019;44:58-61

How to cite this URL:
Saha S, Bhattacharya J. Analyzing the blood bank service quality from Indian blood donors' perspective: An empirical evidence. Indian J Community Med [serial online] 2019 [cited 2019 Mar 26];44:58-61. Available from: http://www.ijcm.org.in/text.asp?2019/44/1/58/253911





   Introduction Top


The service quality in the healthcare sector is considered to be complex as compared to other services due to the involvement of human life.[1] Most of the first-time blood donors avoid their second donation not just because of medical reasons but for pandemonium conditions such as long, arduous screening time and incompetent staff behavior encountered in blood banks,[2],[3] leaving them frustrated with a resolve not to visit a blood bank again.[4] As a result, more than one donor at every donation session is lost due to bad management of the blood banks.[5] If this sordid saga continues, sooner or later, public faith in the blood donation system will erode significantly in the near future.[6] Therefore, the current strategic challenge in the operations of blood donation is the requirement of improved service quality, guarantees,[7] blood donor satisfaction,[8],[9] and their retention.[10] Changing the perception of the blood donors toward the quality of blood bank services by the management will be the introductory reform in the healthcare sector.[3],[8] Thus, the use of the SERVQUAL model can be set up as a benchmarking tool to understand the differences between the services being offered and actual services being provided.[11],[12] Customer satisfaction is well acknowledged in the marketing literature and is gaining extensive recognition in the healthcare sector as well.[13] Therefore, to ensure adequate blood supplies, an initiative with an objective to assess the level of service quality was taken by blood banks from the blood donors' point of view by using the SERVQUAL model.


   Materials and Methods Top


The study conducted from April 2016 to December 2016 covered central and NACO-supported blood banks in various districts of Bihar and Jharkhand as per the convenient sampling technique. Researchers adopted and respecified the scale items of SERVQUAL model that consists of five dimensions, namely Reliability, Assurance, Tangibility, Empathy, and Responsiveness proposed by Parasuraman et al. 1988[14] as an instrument to measure the level of service quality of a blood bank from blood donor's perspective. Use of the SERVQUAL model allowed us to identify the gap between service offered, quality of services,[15],[16],[17] followed by real-time services experienced by blood donors;[18] so that, necessary action could be initiated by the management of blood banks to close the gap of perception for a better service. Consequently, the self-structured questionnaire was administered to 300 donors visiting blood banks. Almost 280 finally returned the filled-in questionnaire, giving a response rate of 93.33%. The language of the questionnaire was both English and Hindi. The validity and reliability of the scale have been recognized by the host of the researchers in their original study.[1],[2],[3],[14],[15],[16],[17],[18] Content validity has been tested and achieved successfully. Statistical analyses were done using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software, version 20.0 (IBM, Armonk, New York City, USA).


   Results Top


To determine the expectation and perception view of the blood donors, we selected gap 5-”Customer's expectations versus their perceptions of the service delivered” model from SERVQUAL seven gap model proposed by Parasuraman et al. 1988[14] to assess the service quality being offered by blood banks. Here, the blood donor's gap is considered to be the most important gap in the management of services of blood banks, where it shows the difference between donor's expectation and perceptions – on, before, and after blood donation.[19] Expectation refers to the standards, which donors believe it should happen, while perceptions refer to the assessment of the actual service experienced during the exercise of donation.[3]

The reliability analysis was performed, and the result of Cronbach's alpha in [Table 1] registered 0.90 (Expectation) and 0.73 (Perception), confirmed good consistency. Another reliability tool, KMO, has been used to measure the sampling adequacy; as a result, KMO value of 0.85 and 0.75 for the complete sample in blood donors' questionnaire support the reliability coefficient. Moreover, Bartlett's test of sphericity shows fair Chi-square value of 3090.082 and 2184.80, respectively, and reflects P < 0.05 with 91 degrees of freedom, indicating that the data were appropriate for SERVQUAL analysis.
Table 1: Result of reliability analysis

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In [Table 2], the analysis has been done on statements, with due coding for ease in computation and references. Further, [Table 3] depicts the average mean between expectation and perception of each of the statements in the SERVQUAL questionnaire, as emphasized. The average of expectation, perception, and Gap 5 for each of the five dimensions have been analyzed based on responses on the statements [e.g., [Table 2]. Moreover, the gap scores will allow the blood bank manager to evaluate current service quality and thus quantify the gap that exists in proposed and actual services which have been provided to the blood donors by the blood bank. Therefore, the priorities of the SERVQUAL dimensions were determined by asking each of the blood donors to rank them from 1 to 5 (1 – fully disagree and 5 – fully agree). The responses of blood donors' were then calculated to facilitate arriving at a solution for each dimension of service quality. The average of each dimension was then calculated using the SPSS software. Finally, the aggregated weighted average for each priority was identified through a multiplication operation (Weight × Mean).
Table 2: Coding of statements

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Table 3: Service quality dimensions and summary of means of blood donor's expectations, perception, and gap scores (n=280)

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   Discussion Top


An insight into Gap 5 scores [e.g., [Table 3] emphasizes that all the five dimensions moderately affect the blood donors' expectation with their actual perception. It is also seen that among the five service quality dimensions, the importance of Empathy factor is having the highest priority for the blood donors (the weight amounted to approximately 26%). The second priority among the service quality dimensions was Assurance, which had a weighting of 23%, followed by Responsiveness, Reliability, and Tangibility [e.g., [Table 4]].
Table 4: Results of service quality dimensions of blood bank

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Furthermore, the aggregated weighted scores of expectation [e.g., [Table 5]] show positive values, which further cements the fact that blood donors are having noble intent and commitment to blood donation. The dimensions of Tangibles, Reliability, and Responsiveness, somehow, jointly scored a dismal 0.28. All of these weighted dimensions are indicators of a positive turnabout in the management of blood bank services. However, the dimension of “Assurance,” where the services score provided by blood bank is 0.55, and the dimension of “Empathy” scoring a high 0.49 on the service quality index, require the immediate attention of the management of the blood bank.
Table 5: Aggregated and weighted scores and overall service quality index

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The aim of this study is to use SERVQUAL model to assess quality level service provided by blood banks and judgmental point of view of blood donors. This study additionally added “GAP” model[3] as a powerful instrument for blood donation center administrators to recognize the zones of insufficiencies in administration.[20] The study likewise contributes that the blood donation center manager needs to analyze, dissect, and evaluate the level of service quality provided and ways of measuring the impact of the general fulfillment level of blood contributors.


   Conclusions Top


The administration of blood donation centers must give consideration to the measurements of “Assurance” and “Empathy” for the better fulfillment of blood contributors and retention. There is a need to enhance methodologies to empower inspirational state of mind by improving employees code of conduct, better compensations, and need to develop strong attitude to work hard for both society and workplace, so that, the employees can convey better services to the blood contributors.[5] In conclusion, based on the result of the study, there is a need for infrastructure modernization and the technical upgradation of skills and equipment in blood banks which would definitely provide a dynamic transfusion service network.

Acknowledgment

The authors would like to acknowledge blood banks of Bihar and Jharkhand state of India for their support. Moreover, we also like to acknowledge and thank Col. K. Saha (Indian Army); Health Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Dhanbad (Jharkhand) for providing us necessary suggestions followed by guidelines, contribution for this study.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
   References Top

1.
Babakus E, Mangold WG. Adapting the SERVQUAL scale to hospital services: An empirical investigation. Health Serv Res 1992;26:767-86.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Brahmbhatt M, Baser N, Joshi N. Adapting the SERVQUAL scale to hospital services: An empirical investigation of patients' perceptions of service quality. Int J Multi Res 2011;1:27-42.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Al-Zubaidi H, Al-Asousi D. Service quality assessment in central blood bank: Blood donors' perspective. J Econ Adm Sci 2012;28:28-38.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
TOI. India Facing a Blood Shortage of 3 Million Units. Times of India. Available from: http://www.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/life-style/health-fitness/health/India-facing-a-blood-shortage-of-3-million-units/articleshow/36492006.cms. [Last accessed on 2016 Jun 16].  Back to cited text no. 4
    
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Saha S, Chandra B. A cross-sectional blood study in India: From donors donation activities to blood bank services. Curr Sci 2016;110:1789-800.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Daily Mail. Blood Donation Crisis – But NOT Because of a lack of Donors: Thousands Being Turned Away Due to Clinics' Incompetence. Available from: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-2539069/Tens-thousands-blood-donors- turned-away-year-long-delays-admin-cock-ups.html. [Last accessed on 2014 Jan 14].  Back to cited text no. 6
    
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Spreng RA, Mackoy RD. An empirical examination of a model of perceived service quality and satisfaction. J Retail 1996;72:201-14.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
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Saha S, Chandra B. Understanding the underlying motives and intention among Indian blood donors towards voluntary blood donation: A cross-sectional study. Transfus Clin Biol 2018;25:109-17.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
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Riley W, Schwei M, McCullough J. The United States' potential blood donor pool: Estimating the prevalence of donor-exclusion factors on the pool of potential donors. Transfusion 2007;47:1180-8.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
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Raspollini E, Pappalettera M, Riccardi D, Parravicini A, Sestili S, Rebulla P, et al. Use of SERVQUAL to assess clinicians' satisfaction with the blood transfusion service. Vox Sang 1997;73:162-6.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
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Seth N, Deshmukh SG, Vrat P. Service quality models: A review. Int J Qual Reliab Manage 2005;22:913-49.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Oliver RL. A conceptual model of service quality and service satisfaction: Compatible goals, different concepts. Adv Serv Mark Manage 1993;2:65-85.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
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Parasuraman A, Zeithaml VA, Berry LL. SERVQUAL: A multipleitem scale for measuring consumer perceptions of service quality. J Retail 1988;64:12-40.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
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Zeithaml VA, Bitner MJ, Gremler DD. Services Marketing: Integrating Customer Focus across the Firm. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill; 2006.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
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Parasuraman A, Zeithaml VA, Berry LL. A conceptual model of service quality and its implications for future research. J Mark 1985;49:41-50.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
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Parasuraman A, Berry LL, Zeithaml VA. Refinement and reassessment of the SERVQUAL scale. J Retail 1991;67:420-50.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Parasuraman A, Zeithaml VA, Berry LL. Alternative scales for measuring service quality: A comparative assessment based on psychometric and diagnostic criteria. J Retail 1994;70:201-30.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
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Lee H, Lee Y, Yoo D. The determinants of perceived service quality and its relationship with satisfaction. J Serv Mark 2000;14:217-31.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Seth N, Deshmukh SG, Vrat P. A framework for measurement of quality of service in supply chains. Supply Chain Manage Int J 2006;11:82-94.  Back to cited text no. 20
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5]



 

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  2007 - Indian Journal of Community Medicine | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
  Online since 15th September, 2007