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SHORT COMMUNICATION Table of Contents   
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 41  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 62-64
Socio-cultural and knowledge-based barriers to tuberculosis diagnosis for women in Bhopal, India


1 Department of Biology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA; School for International Training, New Delhi, India
2 Department of Community and Family Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
3 School for International Training, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Evonne McArthur
GSB 3354, Biology CB 3280, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599

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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0970-0218.170990

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Background: In India, only one woman is diagnosed with tuberculosis (TB) for every 2.4 men. Previous studies have indicated gender disparities in care-seeking behavior and TB diagnosis; however, little is known about the specific barriers women face. Objectives: This study aimed to characterize socio-cultural and knowledge-based barriers that affected TB diagnosis for women in Bhopal, India. Materials and Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with 13 affected women and 6 health-care workers. The Bhopal Diagnostic Microscopy Laboratory Register (n = 121) and the Bhopal district report (n = 261) were examined for diagnostic and care-seeking trends. Results: Women, especially younger women, faced socio-cultural barriers and stigma, causing many to hide their symptoms. Older women had little awareness about TB. Women often sought treatment from private practitioners, resulting in delayed diagnosis. Conclusions: Understanding these diagnostic and help-seeking behaviors barriers for women is critical for development of a gender-sensitive TB control program.


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  2007 - Indian Journal of Community Medicine | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
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