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ORIGINAL ARTICLE Table of Contents   
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 40  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 27-32
Air nicotine levels in public places in Ahmedabad, India: Before and after implementation of the smoking ban


1 Institute for Gobal Tobacco Control, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA, USA
2 Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, Gujarat Medical Education and Research Society Medical College, Gandhinagar, Gujarat; Department of Health and Family Welfare, Government of Gujarat, India
3 Institute for Gobal Tobacco Control, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Department of Health, Behavior and Society, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
4 Independent Consultant, Behavioural Science Health and Development, New Delhi, India
5 Department of Health and Family Welfare, Government of Gujarat, India

Correspondence Address:
Bhavesh V Modi
Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, Gujarat Medical Education and Research Society Medical College, Gandhinagar - 382 012. Gujarat
India
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Source of Support: This work was supported by an award from the Bloomberg Initiative to Reduce Tobacco Use and from the Flight Attendant Medical Research Institute to the Institute for Global Tobacco Control at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health , Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0970-0218.149266

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Aim: To compare air nicotine levels in public places in Ahmedabad, India, before (June 2008) and after (January, 2010) the implementation of a comprehensive smoking ban which was introduced in October 2008. Materials and Methods: Air nicotine concentrations were measured by sampling of vapor-phase nicotine using passive monitors. In 2008 (baseline), monitors were placed for 5-7 working days in 5 hospitals, 10 restaurants, 5 schools, 5 government buildings, and 10 entertainment venues, of which 6 were hookah bars. In 2010 (follow-up), monitors were placed in 35 similar venues for the same duration. Results: Comparison of the overall median nicotine concentration at baseline (2008) (0.06 μg/m 3 Interquartile range (IQR): 0.02-0.22) to that of follow-up (2010) (0.03 μg/m 3 IQR: 0.00-0.13), reflects a significant decline (% decline = 39.7, P = 0.012) in exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS). The percent change in exposure varied by venue-type. The most significant decrease occurred in hospitals, from 0.04 μg/m [3] at baseline to concentrations under the limit of detection at follow-up (%decline = 100, P < 0.001). In entertainment venues, government offices, and restaurants, decreases in SHS exposure also appeared evident. However, in hookah bars, air nicotine levels appeared to increase (P = 0.160). Conclusion: Overall, SHS exposure was significantly reduced in public places after the smoke-free legislation came into force. However, nicotine concentrations were still detected in most of the venues indicating imperfect compliance with the comprehensive ban.


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  2007 - Indian Journal of Community Medicine | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
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