HomeAboutusEditorial BoardCurrent issuearchivesSearch articlesInstructions for authorsSubscription detailsAdvertise

  Login  | Users online: 980

   Ahead of print articles    Bookmark this page Print this page Email this page Small font sizeDefault font size Increase font size  


 
 Table of Contents    
VIEW POINT  
Year : 2013  |  Volume : 38  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 83-85
 

Is myopia a public health problem in India?


Dr. RP Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India

Date of Submission02-Apr-2013
Date of Acceptance02-Apr-2013
Date of Web Publication23-May-2013

Correspondence Address:
Rohit Saxena
Dr. RP Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0970-0218.112436

Rights and Permissions

 

   Abstract 

Myopia, a form of refractive error is a leading cause of visual disability throughout the world. In India uncorrected refractive errors are the most common cause of visual impairment and second major cause of avoidable blindness. Due to this the public health and economic impact of myopia is enormous. Although school vision screening programme is very successful in many states, still a significant number of school going children remain unidentified and the unmet need for correcting refractive errors in children appears to be significant.


Keywords: Avoidable blindness, myopia, refractive error, school screening


How to cite this article:
Saxena R, Vashist P, Menon V. Is myopia a public health problem in India?. Indian J Community Med 2013;38:83-5

How to cite this URL:
Saxena R, Vashist P, Menon V. Is myopia a public health problem in India?. Indian J Community Med [serial online] 2013 [cited 2019 Dec 10];38:83-5. Available from: http://www.ijcm.org.in/text.asp?2013/38/2/83/112436



   Introduction Top


Myopia, commonly referred to as short sightedness is a form of refractive error and is a very common cause of visual disability throughout the world. The condition may present as blurred distance vision, eye rubbing and squeezing of the eyes. School myopia commences around 5-15 years of age and tends to stabilize in the late teens and is mainly thought to be idiopathic. High myopia may be associated with myopic macular degeneration, cataract, glaucoma, peripheral retinal changes (such as lattice degeneration, retinal holes and tears) and retinal detachment.

Prevalence of myopia

Although, the prevalence of myopia varies by the country, age and by ethnic group it is a major cause of visual impairment in both the the developed and the developing world. [1] The prevalence of myopia has been reported to be as high as 70-90% in some Asian population with Taiwan reporting a myopic prevalence of 84% among 16-18 - years - old high school students. [2],[3]

The earliest survey conducted in India in the 1970's by Jain et al., has shown a prevalence of myopia of 4.79% among the school children in Chandigarh. It was higher in urban population (6.9%) in comparison to rural population (2.77%). [4] Murthy et al., [5] assessed the prevalence of refractive error and related visual impairment in school going children 5-15 years of age, in an urban population in New Delhi and reported a prevalence of 7.4% of myopia.

Uncorrected refractive errors are the most common cause of visual impairment and second major cause of avoidable blindness in India. According to the World Health Organization (WHO)-NPCB survey in 1989, 1.49% population in India is blind of which 7.35% is due to refractive errors. [6] The proportion of blindness due to refractive error increased to 19.7% in the NPCB-National Blindness Survey even though the overall prevalence of blindness was reduced to 1.1%. [7] Three fourth of visual impairment was attributed to refractive errors in the same survey.

As part of the WHO initiative for correction of uncorrected refractive errors, refractive error studies were conducted in children aged 5-15 years in different countries including India. [8] In the study, conducted in 2001, the prevalence of myopia at an urban location (Delhi) was 7.45% [5] and 4.1% at a rural location (Mahmoodnagar in Andhra Pradesh). [9]

In a study in Andhra Pradesh, Dandona et al., [10] reported that refractive error is the main cause of moderate visual impairment among the younger groups and is a major public health problem in India.

Causes of myopia

The risk of developing myopia may be influenced by genetic predisposition along with environmental risk factors. Premature and low birth-weight infants have a higher risk of developing myopia later in life and nutrition and height of the child may also affect the development of myopia. The prevalence of myopia shows significant racial differences. The ethnic and racial difference in the prevalence of myopia can be explained on the basis of common genetic pool. However, as no significant change in the gene pool over the past decades has been documented in Hong Kong, Taiwan, Japan, and Singapore, the increase in myopia prevalence observed over the past few decades in these countries suggests an environmental risk factor. Suspected environmental factors include early age close work as seen in the higher prevalence of myopia among persons who are more educated, higher educational level of the parents and the individual, higher intelligence and socio-economic status.

Numerous theories attribute close-up work to increase in axial (anterior-posterior) length of the eye causing myopia. Studies supporting this view have shown that increased prevalence of myopia is observed in certain occupations, such as microscopy, sewing, and carpet weaving that requires a large amount of time spent in close-up work. However, contrary view states that people with myopic vision will prefer the occupation, which requires near work especially, if they have been uncorrected in childhood.

The increase in number of myopic persons in progressive generations can be attributed to increasing near tasks such as working on computer, video games, and television watching. In the studies conducted in India, the difference in myopia prevalence found between the rural and urban population also points towards the same.

Myopia-public health problem

The public health and economic impact of myopia is enormous. In the United States alone, the cost of correcting refractive errors with spectacles or contact lenses is estimated to be 2 billion dollars per year. Though, there are no available cost estimates for India, but the estimates appear to be similar if not higher. The increase in prevalence of myopia has also led to increase in myopia related complications like retinal detachment, posterior staphyloma, CNVM, and amblyopia. There is no well-established or universally accepted treatment for the prevention of myopia onset or progression. Thus, myopia definitely appears to be a condition with social, educational, and economic consequences.

Due to the high magnitude of uncorrected refractive errors, myopia is considered as one of the important public health problems, especially in the urban population in India. It has been given high priority under the National Programme for Control of Blindness. The school vision-screening programme is fully sponsored by the Government of India and free spectacles are provided to poor children. The programme is aimed to eliminate blindness due to refractive error by providing refractive error services at primary level with the availability of qualified paramedical ophthalmic assistants in the vision centrecenter for every 50,000 population by the year 2020.

Unfortunately, though this well-designed partly centrally sponsored school vision screening programme is very successful in many states, still a significant number of schoolschools going children remain unidentified and the unmet need for correcting refractive errors in children appears to be significant. An uncorrected refractive error leads to learning difficulties and reduced performances in school, ultimately affecting the psycho-social development of the child. Sensitivity and skill is required in detection and evaluation of these children, who rather remain withdrawn and show low interest in socializing and interaction. Though, very real for the affected child the problem may not be suspected by the teacher or the parents. The importance of picking up these children with uncorrected error is magnified when one considers the ease of managing these children. A proper refraction with good well-fitting optical devices can prevent long term disability and improve the personality of the child. Though the initiatives have been taken under the national programme for Control of Blindness, there is need that this programme should be integrated with the Serve Shiksha Abhyaan (SSA) programme and there should be mandatory school vision screening at regular interval in all the schools. Large-scale visual acuity screening programs must be launched to detect low vision due to myopia early and an annual checkup to update the spectacle prescriptions. Public and school-based health education programs may also be targeted at the very young.

Though, there are no studies from India, based on the data from other Asian countries, overemphasis on academic performance and paucity of structured outdoor activity in the schools may be a factor contributing to the high myopia incidence rates in the very young. Thus, myopia prevention strategies should be considered including reassessments of current educational systems in our country. A possible alternative could be to target the school children and to make them aware of the harmful effects of unhealthy behavior like prolonged hours of near activity without any outdoor games. By increasing the awareness of myopia and its possible preventive interventions it will also be possible to identify those children who have not been identified. However, to improve the life-style of these children a well-structured health education programme needs to be formed that will be practical and acceptable to the school going children and results in modification of their life-style.

 
   References Top

1.Morgan IG, Ohno-Matsui K, Saw SM. Myopia. Lancet 2012;379:1739-48.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.Pan CW, Ramamurthy D, Saw SM. Worldwide prevalence and risk factors for myopia. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 2012;32:3-16.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.Lin LL, Shih YF, Hsiao CK, Chen CJ. Prevalence of myopia in Taiwanese schoolchildren: 1983 to 2000. Ann Acad Med Singapore 2004;33:27-33.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.Jain IS, Jain S, Mohan K. The epidemiology of high myopia: Changing trends. Indian J Ophthalmol 1983;31:723-8.  Back to cited text no. 4
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
5.Murthy GV, Gupta SK, Ellwein LB, Muñoz SR, Pokharel GP, Sanga L, et al. Refractive error in children in an urban population in New Delhi. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2002;43:623-31.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.Mohan M. National survey of blindness-India. NPCB-WHO Report. New Delhi: Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India; 1989.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.Murthy GV, Gupta SK, Bachani D, Jose R, John N. Current estimates of blindness in India. Br J Ophthalmol 2005;89:257-60.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.Morgan IG, Rose KA, Ellwein LB, Refractive error study in children survey group. Is emmetropia the natural endpoint for human refractive development? An analysis of population-based data from the refractive error study in children (RESC). Acta Ophthalmol 2010;88:877-84.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.Dandona R, Dandona L, Srinivas M, Sahare P, Narsaiah S, Muñoz SR, et al. Refractive error in children in a rural population in India. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2002;43:615-22.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.Dandona R, Dandona L, Srinivas M, Giridhar P, Prasad MN, Vilas K, et al. Moderate visual impairment in India: The Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study. Br J Ophthalmol 2002;86:373-7.  Back to cited text no. 10
    




 

Top
Print this article  Email this article
           

    

 
   Search
 
  
    Similar in PUBMED
    Search Pubmed for
    Search in Google Scholar for
  Related articles
    Article in PDF (331 KB)
    Citation Manager
    Access Statistics
    Reader Comments
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  


    Abstract
   Introduction
    References

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed3248    
    Printed108    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded250    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal

  Sitemap | What's New | Feedback | Copyright and Disclaimer
  2007 - Indian Journal of Community Medicine | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
  Online since 15th September, 2007