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ORIGINAL ARTICLE Table of Contents   
Year : 2009  |  Volume : 34  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 329-334
Community-based randomized controlled trial of non-pharmacological interventions in prevention and control of hypertension among young adults


Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, Jawaharlal Institute of Post-graduate Medical Education & Research (JIPMER), Puducherry-6, India

Correspondence Address:
M B Soudarssanane
Jawaharlal Institute of Post-graduate Medical Education & Research (JIPMER), Puducherry-605 006
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0970-0218.58393

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Context : Hypertension is a major chronic lifestyle disease. Several non-pharmacological interventions are effective in bringing down the blood pressure (BP). This study focuses on the effectiveness of such interventions among young adults. Aims : To measure the efficacy of physical exercise, reduction in salt intake, and yoga, in lowering BP among young (20-25) pre-hypertensives and hypertensives, and to compare their relative efficacies. Settings and Design: The study was done in the urban service area of JIPMER . Pre-hypertensives and hypertensives, identified from previous studies, constituted the universe. The participants were randomized into one control and three interventional groups. Materials and Methods: A total of 113 subjects: 30, 28, 28 and 27 in four groups respectively participated for eight weeks: control (I), physical exercise (II) - brisk walking for 50-60 minutes, four days/week, salt intake reduction (III) - to at least half of their previous intake, and practice of yoga (IV) - for 30-45 minutes/day on at least five days/week. Statistical Analysis Used: Efficacy was assessed using paired t test and ANOVA with Games Howell post hoc test. An intention to treat analysis was also performed. Results : A total of 102 participants (29, 27, 25 and 21 in groups I, II, III and IV) completed the study. All three intervention groups showed a significant reduction in BP (SBP/DBP: 5.3/6.0 in group II, 2.6/3.7 in III, and 2.0/2.6 mm Hg in IV respectively). There was no significant change (SBP/DBP: 0.2/0.5 mmHg) of BP in control group (I). Physical exercise was most effective (considered individually); salt intake reduction and yoga were also effective. Conclusions : Physical exercise, salt intake reduction, and yoga are effective non-pharmacological interventions in significantly reducing BP among young hypertensives and pre-hypertensives. These can therefore be positively recommended for hypertensives. There is also a case to deploy these interventions in the general population.


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