|Year : 2007 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 75-76
Assessment of periodontal status and loss of teeth among smokers and non- smokers in Belgaum city
Pankaj, A Ankola, L Nagesh, P Tangade, P Hegde
Deptt. of Community Medicine, JNMC , Belgaum, India
|Date of Web Publication||6-Aug-2009|
Deptt. of Community Medicine, JNMC , Belgaum
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
|How to cite this article:|
Pankaj, Ankola A, Nagesh L, Tangade P, Hegde P. Assessment of periodontal status and loss of teeth among smokers and non- smokers in Belgaum city. Indian J Community Med 2007;32:75-6
|How to cite this URL:|
Pankaj, Ankola A, Nagesh L, Tangade P, Hegde P. Assessment of periodontal status and loss of teeth among smokers and non- smokers in Belgaum city. Indian J Community Med [serial online] 2007 [cited 2019 Jun 18];32:75-6. Available from: http://www.ijcm.org.in/text.asp?2007/32/1/75/53413
Periodontal diseases are one of the common oral diseases of mankind. No area of world is free from it. Approximately half of the child population and almost entire adult population has some periodontal disease. Many factors play a major role in the degree of response.
Smoking is one of major risk factor for periodontal diseases and early loss of teeth , . Smoking affects the oral hygiene, the gingival status, the periodontal status, impairing wound healing, diminished implant stability and increased bone loss compared with non- smokers. Clinical findings related to smoking and periodontal disease have been well documented. Alveolar bone loss, tooth mobility, increased probing depth and tooth loss have been reported to the more severe in smokers than in non- smokers , .
This article gives a comparative account of periodontal status and loss of teeth among smokers and non smokers of Belgaum city.
| Material and Methods|| |
This study included 310 males (150 smokers and 160 non smokers) aged 18-60 years attending dental OPD of JLN Medical College, Belgaum. Community Periodontal Index (CPI) was used as an epidemiological tool to assess periodontal status (bleeding, calculus and pockets). Six segments of teeth (sextants) of each individual were examined (150 individuals = 900 sextants) Loss of teeth due to periodontal reasons was also recorded.
Informed consent was obtained and the purpose of study was explained to the respondent. The oral examination throughout was carried by investigator with the help of plane mouth mirror and a WHO probe. Information about age, income, occupation, level of education, brushing frequency and smoking status was recorded on self designed performa. The data was compiled, tabulated and was subjected to statistical analysis. Z-test was employed to check significance between proportions of groups.
| Results|| |
Among both smokers & non smokers, 60% were 25-44 year old and 25% were 45-54 year old. Out of 150 smokers, 45 (30%) smoked 1-4 cigarettes per day, 63(42%) smoked 5-10 cigarettes perday, 27 (18%) were smoked 11-20 cigarettes perday and 15 (10%) smoked more than 20 cigarettes perday.
In smokers out of 900 sextants, 90 were healthly, 127 were bleeding on probing, 341 had calculus, 249 had pockets 4 -5 mm and 93 had pockets 6 mm or more. In non- smokers out of 960 sextants, 106 were healthy, 138 were bleeding on probing, 467 had calculus, 166 had pockets 4-5mm and 83 had pockets 6 mm or more. The difference was statistically significant among smokers and non- smokers [Table 1].
In 18-24 years, none of smokers and non- smokers had missing teeth. In 25-34 years, 2(3.6%) smokers and 1(2.8%) non-smoker had missing teeth. In 35-44 years, 29 (52.8%) smokers and 17(47.2%) non-smokers had missing teeth. In 45-54 years, 17(30.9%) smokers and 14 (38.9%) nonsmokers had missing teeth. In 55-60 years, 7 (12.7%) smokers and 4 (11.1%) non-smokers had missing teeth. The difference was statistically significant among smokers and non- smokers [Table 2].
| Discussion|| |
The present study reveals that smoking is a risk factor for periodontal disease and early loss of teeth. Similar findings has been reported by other authors  .
In all the age groups, the number of healthy sextants (Score) were lower in smokers than in no-smokers and also gingival bleeding (score 1) was higher in non-smokers than in smokers. These findings were in agreement with the data from other studies showing that smokers experience less bleeding than non-smokers  .
In the present study, the calculus scores were similar in both the groups. The proportion of CPI score 3 (4-5 mm pockets) and 4 (6mm or more) among remaining sextants was higher (27.6 and 10.4%) in smokers than in non smokers (17.3 and 8.6%). The percentage of sextants affected with deep pockets among smokers was 38% compared to nonsmokers 25.9% (p=0.0001). Similar significant differences were reported by others .
Percentage of tooth loss due to periodontal diseases among smokers was signifi cantly higher. Similar fi ndings were reported by others  .
| Acknowledgement|| |
Authors are thankful to all the participants and Shri M. D. Mallapur, Lecturer in Statistics, Dept. of Community Medicine, J. N. M. C., Belgaum, for helping with the statistical work.
| References|| |
|1.||Wilson T. Effects of smoking on the periodontium. Quintessence Int. 1998; 29(4); 265-6. |
|2.||Holm G. Smoking as an additional risk for tooth loss. J Periodontal. 1994; 65:996-1001. |
|3.||Linden G. J. Cigarette smoking and periodontal destruction in young adults. J Periodontal. 1994; 65:718-23. |
|4.||Beck J. D. Prevalence and risk indicators for periodontal attachment loss in population of older community. J Periodontal. 1990; 61:521-28. |
|5.||Bergstrom J. Tobacco use as a risk factor. J. Periodontal. 1994; 65:545-50. |
[Table 1], [Table 2]