HomeAboutusEditorial BoardCurrent issuearchivesSearch articlesInstructions for authorsSubscription detailsAdvertise

  Login  | Users online: 1567

   Ahead of print articles    Bookmark this page Print this page Email this page Small font sizeDefault font size Increase font size  


 
SHORT ARTICLE Table of Contents   
Year : 2007  |  Volume : 32  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 75-76
 

Assessment of periodontal status and loss of teeth among smokers and non- smokers in Belgaum city


Deptt. of Community Medicine, JNMC , Belgaum, India

Date of Web Publication6-Aug-2009

Correspondence Address:
Pankaj
Deptt. of Community Medicine, JNMC , Belgaum
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0970-0218.53413

Rights and Permissions

 



How to cite this article:
Pankaj, Ankola A, Nagesh L, Tangade P, Hegde P. Assessment of periodontal status and loss of teeth among smokers and non- smokers in Belgaum city. Indian J Community Med 2007;32:75-6

How to cite this URL:
Pankaj, Ankola A, Nagesh L, Tangade P, Hegde P. Assessment of periodontal status and loss of teeth among smokers and non- smokers in Belgaum city. Indian J Community Med [serial online] 2007 [cited 2019 Sep 23];32:75-6. Available from: http://www.ijcm.org.in/text.asp?2007/32/1/75/53413


Periodontal diseases are one of the common oral diseases of mankind. No area of world is free from it. Approximately half of the child population and almost entire adult population has some periodontal disease. Many factors play a major role in the degree of response.

Smoking is one of major risk factor for periodontal diseases and early loss of teeth [3],[4] . Smoking affects the oral hygiene, the gingival status, the periodontal status, impairing wound healing, diminished implant stability and increased bone loss compared with non- smokers. Clinical findings related to smoking and periodontal disease have been well documented. Alveolar bone loss, tooth mobility, increased probing depth and tooth loss have been reported to the more severe in smokers than in non- smokers [1],[2] .

This article gives a comparative account of periodontal status and loss of teeth among smokers and non smokers of Belgaum city.


   Material and Methods Top


This study included 310 males (150 smokers and 160 non smokers) aged 18-60 years attending dental OPD of JLN Medical College, Belgaum. Community Periodontal Index (CPI) was used as an epidemiological tool to assess periodontal status (bleeding, calculus and pockets). Six segments of teeth (sextants) of each individual were examined (150 individuals = 900 sextants) Loss of teeth due to periodontal reasons was also recorded.

Informed consent was obtained and the purpose of study was explained to the respondent. The oral examination throughout was carried by investigator with the help of plane mouth mirror and a WHO probe. Information about age, income, occupation, level of education, brushing frequency and smoking status was recorded on self designed performa. The data was compiled, tabulated and was subjected to statistical analysis. Z-test was employed to check significance between proportions of groups.


   Results Top


Among both smokers & non smokers, 60% were 25-44 year old and 25% were 45-54 year old. Out of 150 smokers, 45 (30%) smoked 1-4 cigarettes per day, 63(42%) smoked 5-10 cigarettes perday, 27 (18%) were smoked 11-20 cigarettes perday and 15 (10%) smoked more than 20 cigarettes perday.

In smokers out of 900 sextants, 90 were healthly, 127 were bleeding on probing, 341 had calculus, 249 had pockets 4 -5 mm and 93 had pockets 6 mm or more. In non- smokers out of 960 sextants, 106 were healthy, 138 were bleeding on probing, 467 had calculus, 166 had pockets 4-5mm and 83 had pockets 6 mm or more. The difference was statistically significant among smokers and non- smokers [Table 1].

In 18-24 years, none of smokers and non- smokers had missing teeth. In 25-34 years, 2(3.6%) smokers and 1(2.8%) non-smoker had missing teeth. In 35-44 years, 29 (52.8%) smokers and 17(47.2%) non-smokers had missing teeth. In 45-54 years, 17(30.9%) smokers and 14 (38.9%) non­smokers had missing teeth. In 55-60 years, 7 (12.7%) smokers and 4 (11.1%) non-smokers had missing teeth. The difference was statistically significant among smokers and non- smokers [Table 2].


   Discussion Top


The present study reveals that smoking is a risk factor for periodontal disease and early loss of teeth. Similar findings has been reported by other authors [3] .

In all the age groups, the number of healthy sextants (Score) were lower in smokers than in no-smokers and also gingival bleeding (score 1) was higher in non-smokers than in smokers. These findings were in agreement with the data from other studies showing that smokers experience less bleeding than non-smokers [3] .

In the present study, the calculus scores were similar in both the groups. The proportion of CPI score 3 (4-5 mm pockets) and 4 (6mm or more) among remaining sextants was higher (27.6 and 10.4%) in smokers than in non smokers (17.3 and 8.6%). The percentage of sextants affected with deep pockets among smokers was 38% compared to non­smokers 25.9% (p=0.0001). Similar significant differences were reported by others [5].

Percentage of tooth loss due to periodontal diseases among smokers was signifi cantly higher. Similar fi ndings were reported by others [2] .


   Acknowledgement Top


Authors are thankful to all the participants and Shri M. D. Mallapur, Lecturer in Statistics, Dept. of Community Medicine, J. N. M. C., Belgaum, for helping with the statistical work.

 
   References Top

1.Wilson T. Effects of smoking on the periodontium. Quintessence Int. 1998; 29(4); 265-6.  Back to cited text no. 1    
2.Holm G. Smoking as an additional risk for tooth loss. J Periodontal. 1994; 65:996-1001.  Back to cited text no. 2    
3.Linden G. J. Cigarette smoking and periodontal destruction in young adults. J Periodontal. 1994; 65:718-23.  Back to cited text no. 3    
4.Beck J. D. Prevalence and risk indicators for periodontal attachment loss in population of older community. J Periodontal. 1990; 61:521-28.  Back to cited text no. 4    
5.Bergstrom J. Tobacco use as a risk factor. J. Periodontal. 1994; 65:545-50.  Back to cited text no. 5    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2]



 

Top
Print this article  Email this article
                 

    

 
   Search
 
  
    Similar in PUBMED
    Search Pubmed for
    Search in Google Scholar for
    Article in PDF (38 KB)
    Citation Manager
    Access Statistics
    Reader Comments
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  


    Material and Methods
    Results
    Discussion
    Acknowledgement
    References
    Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed1076    
    Printed66    
    Emailed1    
    PDF Downloaded108    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal

  Sitemap | What's New | Feedback | Copyright and Disclaimer
  © 2007 - Indian Journal of Community Medicine | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow
  Online since 15th September, 2007