|Year : 2006 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 30-31
Hospital based study on psychoses in Mangalore
A Barua, H Shankar, A Jain, VK Bhat, NU Kiran, S Jayarama
Department of Community Medicine, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, India
|Date of Web Publication||8-Aug-2009|
Department of Community Medicine, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore
|How to cite this article:|
Barua A, Shankar H, Jain A, Bhat V K, Kiran N U, Jayarama S. Hospital based study on psychoses in Mangalore. Indian J Community Med 2006;31:30-1
|How to cite this URL:|
Barua A, Shankar H, Jain A, Bhat V K, Kiran N U, Jayarama S. Hospital based study on psychoses in Mangalore. Indian J Community Med [serial online] 2006 [cited 2014 Nov 24];31:30-1. Available from: http://www.ijcm.org.in/text.asp?2006/31/1/30/54930
| Introduction|| |
Schizophrenia and related psychoses are severe mental disorders, which usually start in adolescence or early adult life, and often become chronic and disabling. They are considered a major public health problem in many parts of the world, representing a heavy burden both for the families of affected individuals as well as national health systems. These are group of chronic debilitating psychiatric illness, characterized by loss of touch with realitY & disorders of thought, behaviour, appearance and speech  .
While psychiatric disorders in total have a worldwide prevalence of 32.5%, schizophrenia has a prevalence of 1.5% (worldwide). The prevalence of schizophrenia in India is about 1%, this may be due to diagnostic drawbacks rather than decreased number of cases  . The etiological factors involved in the pathogenesis of the disease include genetic predisposition (60% concordance rates in monozygotic twins), family environment (presence of stressors & disease among other family members), viral infection (inconclusive proof), cerebral infections and neurotransmitter disturbances ,, . This study was conducted with on objective to study the sociodemographic characteristics of the patients suffering from schizophrenia and related psychoses in a Mangalore hospital.
| Material & Methods|| |
Kasturba Medical College Hospital, Attavar is a tertiary care level private institute, situated at the centre of port town of Mangalore in Dakshina Kannada District of Karnataka state in India. The migratory population from Tamil Nadu and Kerala also often utilize the health care facilities of this hospital.
This is a Retrospective study design based on Case Series Analysis. All in-patients admitted to Department of Psychiatry during March 1999 and December 2000, constituted a sample size of 98.
Data was collected by using a structured proforma after scrutinizing from case files from Medical Records Department. The data collected was tabulated and analysed using the statistical package of SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) Version 7.5.
| Results & Discussion|| |
None of the patients were found to be below 16 yrs. of age. Majority (85.7%) were in the age of 16-55 years. This observation is in concordance with the figures quoted by others, who observed in their studies that 90% of schizophrenics belonged to the age group of 15 and 54 years  , . Incidence of schizophrenia was highest for men between 15 and 24 years and for women the peak appeared between 25 and 34 years , .We also observed that females were more affected than males (65.4%) in the age group of 16-25 years and more than 65 years (83.3%). The distribution of cases remained almost equal for both sexes in other age groups.
Majority of the patients were Hindus (68.4%). Most of them (85.7%) hailed from Karnataka. 14.3% came from Kerala for treatments of their mental disorders. 58.2% individuals were married and majority were females (57.4%). Among female patients, 24.1% were unmarried and only 12.2% were either widow, separated or divorced.
More than half (53.0%) of the unemployed and housewives were affected with schizophrenia and related psychoses. Among the unemployed group, 10.2% were students. Occupational status remained unknown in 14.3% cases. We observed that mental illnesses were common in working class of society (32.7%).
In this study, only 16.3% patients belonged to below poverty level. But since this hospital was a tertiary care level private Institute, majority of the in-patients were above poverty level and could afford the treatment cost. While majority (88.8%) of the patients were literates, but the illiterates and those with lower level of education, together constituted 50.0% of these cases. It is a well-documented fact that schizophrenia is more prevalent among the lower socio-economic classes and in people with low level of education  .
Majority, 58.2% of the patients were living with their spouse, 31.6% living only with their children and relatives and only 10.2% were living alone. In 85.7% of cases, one of the 1st degree relatives in the family had suffered from some confirmed psychitatric illness in the past among a total of 21.4% patients who gave a positive family history of psychiatric illness. Only 5.1% patients had a positive family history of suicide or suicidal attempts. 11.2% of schizophrenics in our study had made an attempt at suicide. The risk of suicide in individuals with schizophrenia has been reported to range from (2 -(13))%  . Among the stressors, marital disturbances were a precipitating factor for 23.5% cases of schizophrenia and related psychoses. This was found to be the most important stressor in this study. History of death in the family within the last 12 months was positive in 17.3% cases. Family disputes accounted for 15.3% and Personal problems, including intra and interpersonal conflicts acted as a precipitating factor for in 9.2% of the cases. Here, on patient was subjected to more than one stressor. No specific references are given to numbers but importance is given to family environment marital disturbances and problems 4 in professional life as possible stressors for schizophrenia ,.
| References|| |
|1.||Braff L. Schizophrenic Disorders. In: Anthony et. al. (editors) Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. New Delhi: McGraw Hill; 1998; P. 2415. |
|2.||Carpenter WT, Buchana RW. Schizophrenia Introduction and Overview. In: Kaplan Hl, Sadock BJ (editors). Comprehensive Text Book of Psychiatry. Philadelphia: Williams & Wilkins; 1995; 889-90. |
|3.||Africa B, Schwartz RS. Schizophrenic Disorders. In: Howard H Goldman (editor). Review of General Psychiatry. New York Appleton & Lange; 1995, 22. |
|4.||Kasyc M, Norquist GS. Schizophrenia-Epidemiology, In: Kaplan Hl,Sadock BJ, editors. Comprehensive Text Book of Psychiatry. Philadelphia: Williams & Wilkins: 1995; P. 908. |